The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 4 of 9 
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 The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 4 of 9

Express - Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.

Extended ALGOL - Used to write the ESPOL compiler on Burroughs B5500,
B6700.  "Burroughs B6700 Extended ALGOL Language Information Manual", No.
5000128 (Jul 1971)  Sammet 1969, p.196.

Extended ML - Don Sanella, Edinburgh.  Algebraic specification meets
functional programming.  "Program Specification and Development in Standard
ML", D. Sannella et al, 12th POPL, ACM 1985.

EXTRA - Object-oriented, Pascal style, handles sets.  "A Data Model and
Query Language for EXODUS", M.J. Carey et al, SIGMOD 88 Conf Proc, pp.413-
423, ACM SIGMOD Record 17:3 (Sept 1988).

EZ - High-level string-processing language derived from SNOBOL4, SL5 and
Icon.  "The EZ Reference Manual", C.W. Fraser et al, CS TR 84-1, U Arizona,

FAC - Functional Array Calculator.  APL-like but purely functional and
lazy, allowing infinite arrays.  "FAC: A Functional APL Language", H.-C. Tu
and A.J. Perlis, IEEE Trans Soft Eng 3(1):36-45 (Jan 1986).

Facile - ECRC.  A concurrent extension of ML.  "Facile: A Symmetric
Integration of Concurrent and Functional Programming", A. Giacalone

FACT - Fully Automated Compiling Technique.  ca. 1959.  Pre-COBOL
English-like business DP language for Honeywell 800.  (Aka Honeywell-800
Business Compiler.)  Sammet 1969, p.327.

FAD - "FAD, A Simple and Powerful Database Language", F. Bancilon et al,
Proc 13th Intl Conf on VLDB, Brighton England, Sept 1987.

FAIR - Early system on IBM 705.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

FAP - Assembly language for Sperry-Rand 1103 and 1103A.  Listed in CACM
2(5):16 (May 1959).

FAS - General purpose language sponsored by the Finnish government in the
70's and 80's.

FASE - Fundamentally Analyzable Simplified English.  L.E. McMahon, Bell
Labs.  Sammet 1969, p.720.

FAST - fortran Automatic Symbol Translator.  Assembly language on IBM 650
by MITRE Corp.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).  Sammet 1969, p.526.

FC - Functional language.  "FC Manual", L. Augustsson, Memo 13, Programming
Methodology Group, Chalmers U, Sweden 1982.

F-code - Code for the FPM abstract machine, an optimized SECD machine.
"FP/M Abstract Syntax Description", R. Bailey, Dept Computing, Imperial
College, U London, 1985.

FCP - Flat Concurrent Prolog.  "Design and Implementation of Flat
Concurrent Prolog", C. Mierowsky, TR CS84-21 Weizmann Inst, Dec 1984.

Feel - Free and Eventually EuLisp.  An initial implementation of EuLisp.

FEL - Function Equation Language.  "FEL Programmer's Guide", R. M. Keller,
AMPS TR 7, U Utah, March 1982.

FFP - Formal FP.  Similar to FP, but with regular sugarless syntax, for
machine execution.  "Can Programming be Liberated From the von Neumann
Style?  A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs", John Backus, 1977
Turing Award Lecture, CACM 21(8):165-180 (Aug 1978).  (See FP, FL).

FGHC - Flat GHC.  A variant of GHC in which guard calls can be only to
primitives.  (See KL1).

FGL - Flow Graph Lisp.  A distributed dataflow language for AMPS
(Applicative Multi-Processing System).  "A Loosely-Coupled Applicative
Multi-Processing System", R. Keller et al, NCC, AFIPS June 1979, pp.613-

FGL+LV - "Functional Programming and the Logical Variable", G. Lindstrom,
POPL 1985, pp.266-280.

FGRAAL - FORTRAN extended GRAph Algorithmic Language.  A FORTRAN extension
for handling sets and graphs.  "On a Programming Language for Graph
Algorithms", W.C. Rheinboldt et al, BIT 12(2) 1972.

FIDO - FInite DOmains.  A constraint language implemented on top of Prolog.

File Composition - Typesetting language.  "File Composition System
Reference Manual", No. 90388, Information Intl.

F+L - Equational clauses within function definitions to solve for logical
variable bindings.  ""Functions plus Logic in Theory and Practice", R.B.
Kieburtz, Feb 1987, unpublished.

FL - Function Level.  John Backus, ca. 1985.  Successor to FP.  Dynamically
typed.  Adds higher-order functions, exceptions, user-defined types, and
other features.  "FL Language Manual, Parts 1 & 2", J. Backus et al, IBM
Research Report RJ 7100 (1989).  (See FP, FFP).

FLAIR - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

FLAP - Symbolic math, for IBM 360.  "FLAP Programmer's Manual", A.H. Morris
Jr., TR-2558 (1971) U.S. Naval Weapons Lab.  Sammet 1969, p.506.

with object-oriented features.  "Object-Oriented Programming with Flavors",
D.A. Moon, SIGPLAN Notices 21(11):1-8 (OOPSLA '86) (Nov 1986).

Fleng - Parallel logic language.  "Massively Parallel Implementation of
Flat GHC on the Connection Machine", M. Nilsson, Proc Intl Conf on 5th Gen
Comp Sys, 1988, pp.1031-1040.


  1. Faster LEX.  (Faster and free.)  "The FLEX Scanner Generator", Vern

ftp: comp.sources.unix/Volume23

  2. Real-time language for dynamic environments.  "FLEX: Towards Flexible
Real-Time Programs", K. Lin et al, Computer Langs 16(1):65-79 (Jan 1991).

Flex 2 - ca. 1980.  A preprocessor designed to make FORTRAN look more like
Pascal.  DECUS?

FLIC - Functional Language Intermediate Code.  Intermediate language used
in the Chalmers LML compiler.  "FLIC - A Functional Language Intermediate



  1. Early assembly language on G-15.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

  2. "FLIP User's Manual", G. Kahn, TR 5, INRIA 1981.

FLIP-SPUR - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

F-Logic - "F-Logic: A Higher-Order Language for Reasoning about Objects,
Inheritance and Scheme", ACM SIGMOD May 1989, pp.134-146.

FLOP - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

FLOW-MATIC or FLOWMATIC - (originally B-0).  Remington Rand, 1958.
Possibly the first English-like DP language.  For UNIVAC I.  Sammet 1969,

FLPL - FORTRAN List Processing Language.  H. Gelernter et al, ca 1960.
Package of FORTRAN subroutines for handling lists.  Sammet 1969, p.388.

FMPL - Frobozz Magic Programming Language.  Experimental Computing
Facility, UC Berkeley.  A prototype-based object-oriented language with
functional features.  Event-driven.


  1. FOrmula CALculator.  BASIC-style interpreter from DEC, designed 1969
for PDP-5/PDP-8's.  Versions: FOCAL-69, FOCAL-1971, FOCAL-11 (for PDP-11
under RT-11).

  2. Forty-One Calculator Language.  Programming language of the HP-41
calculator line.

FOCUS - Hierarchical database language.  Information Builders Inc.

FOIL - File Oriented Interpretive Language.  CAI language.  "FOIL - A File
Oriented Interpretive Language", J.C. Hesselbart, Proc ACM 23rd National
Conf (1968).

foogol - Per Lindberg.  A tiny ALGOL-like language based on the VALGOL I
compiler, G.A. Edgar, DDJ May 1985.
ftp: comp.sources.unix/V8 /systems/amiga/fish/fish/ff066

FOOL - Fool's Lisp.  A small Scheme interpreter.

FOOP - OBJ2 plus object-orientation.  "Extensions and Foundations for
Object-Oriented Programming", J. Goguen et al, in Research Directions in
Object-Oriented Programming, B. Shriver et al eds, MIT Press 1987.

FORC - Early system on IBM 704.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Force - dBASE dialect for MS-DOS.

The Force - Data parallel language.  "The Force", H. Jordan in The
Characteristics of Parallel Algorithms, L. Jamieson et al eds, MIT Press
1987, pp.395-436.

ForceOne - Andrew K. Wright.  "Polymorphism in the Compiled Language
ForceOne", G.V. Cormack et al, Proc 20th Annual Hawaii Intl Conf on System
Sciences, 1987, pp.284-292.  "Design of the Programming Language ForceOne",
A.K. Wright, MS Thesis, U Waterloo 1987.

ForceTwo - Andrew K. Wright.  An unofficial successor to ForceOne.

handling of very large-scale symbolic math calculations.  A descendant of
Schoonschip.  Available for many PC's and workstations.

FORMAC - FORmula MAnipulation Compiler.  J. Sammet & Tobey, IBM Boston APD,
1962.  Extension of FORTRAN for symbolic math.  "Introduction to FORMAC",
J.E. Sammet et al, IEEE Trans Elec Comp (Aug 1964).  Versions: PL/I-FORMAC
and FORMAC73.  Sammet 1969, pp.474-491.


  1. FORmula MAnipulation Language.  An early FORTRAN extension for
symbolic math.  "FORMAL, A Formula Manipulation Language", C.K. Mesztenyi,
Computer Note CN-1, CS Dept, U Maryland (Jan 1971).

  2. IBM LASC.  Data manipulation language for nonprogrammers.  "FORMAL: A
Forms-Oriented and Visual-Directed Application System", N.C. Shu, IEEE
Computer 18(8):38-49 (1985).

FORMAT-FORTRAN - FORTRAN Matrix Abstraction Technique FORTRAN.
Manipulation, printing and plotting of large matrices.  "FORMAT-FORTRAN
Matrix Abstraction Technique (Vol. V)" AFFDL-TR-66-207, Douglas Aircraft Co
(Oct 1968).

Formes - Object-oriented language for music composition and synthesis,
written in VLISP.  "Formes: Composition and Scheduling of Processes", X.
Rodet & P. Cointe, Computer Music J 8(3):32-50 (Fall 1984).

Formula -

  1. FORTH Music Language.  An extension of FORTH with concurrent note-
playing processes.  "Formula: A Programming Language for Expressive
Computer Music", D.P. Anderson et al Computer 24(7):12 (Jul 1991).  For Mac
and Atari ST, with MIDI output.

  2. Preprocessor language for the Acorn Archimedes, allowing inline high-
level statements to be entered in an assembly program.  Written in nawk.

Formula ALGOL - ALGOL extension for symolic math, strings and lists.
Carnegie, CDC G-20, 1962.  A.J. Perlis & R. Iturriaga.  Sammet 1969, p.583.
"An Extension of ALGOL for Manipulating Formulae", A.J. Perlis et al, CACM
7(2):127-130 (Feb 1964).

Forsythe - An ALGOL-like language.  "Preliminary Design of the Programming
Language Forsythe", J.C. Reynolds, CMU-CS-88-159, 1988.

FORTH - Fourth.  Charles H. Moore, 1960's.  An interactive extensible
language using postfix syntax and a data stack.  A program is a set of
recursive functions ("words") which are compiled by an outer interpreter
into bytecodes.  FORTH is small and efficient, but programs can be
difficult to read.  Used first to guide the telescope at NRAO, Kitt Peak.
Versions include FORTH 79 and FORTH 83.  FORTH Interest Group, Box 1105,
San Carlos CA 94070.

FORTRAN - FORmula TRANslator.  The first and still the most widely used
language for numerical calculations.  Nonrecursive, efficient.

FORTRAN I - John Backus, IBM for the IBM 704.  Design begun 1954, compiler
released April 1957.

FORTRAN II - 1958.  Added subroutines.

FORTRAN III - This was only distributed to ca. 20 sites.  See Wexelblat.

FORTRAN IV - IBM 1962.  For the IBM 7090/94.  Many implementations went
well beyond the original definition.

FORTRAN V - Preliminary work on adding character handling facilities by IBM
ca. 1962.  This name never really used.

FORTRAN VI - Internal IBM name for early PL/I work ca. 1963.  Sammet 1969,

FORTRAN 66 - FORTRAN IV standardized.  ASA X3.9-1966.

FORTRAN 77 - Block IF, PARAMETER, SAVE statements added, still no WHILE.
Fixed-length character strings, format-free I/O, arrays with lower bounds.
ANSI X3.9-1978.
ftp: for Amiga

Fortran 90 - Previously Fortran 8x and Fortran Extended.  An extensive
enlargement of FORTRAN 77.  Derived types, assumed shape arrays, array
sections, functions returning arrays, case statement, module subprograms
and internal subprograms, optional and keyword subprogram arguments,
recursion, and dynamic allocation.  ISO 1539:1991, soon to be adopted by
ANSI.  "Fortran 90 Explained", M. Metcalf et al, Oxford University Press

Fortran D - Ken Kennedy, Rice U.  A data-parallel Fortran.  TR 90-141, Rice

FORTRAN-Plus - FORTRAN for the DAP parallel machine, implements many
Fortran 90 features.

FORTRANSIT - FORTRAN Internal Translator.  Subset of FORTRAN translated
into IT on the IBM 650.  Sammet 1969, p.141.

FORTRUNCIBLE - A cross between FORTRAN and RUNCIBLE for the IBM 650.
Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

FoxBASE+ - dBASE III+-like product from Fox Software, Perrysburg, OH.

FoxPRO - dBASE IV-like product from Fox Software, Perrysburg, OH.

FP - Functional Programming.  Backus.  Combinator based.  "Can Programming
be Liberated From the von Neumann Style?  A Functional Style and Its
Algebra of Programs", John Backus, 1977 Turing Award Lecture, CACM
21(8):165-180 (Aug 1978).  (See FFP, FL, IFP).
Berkeley FP - distributed with 4.2BSD
ftp: comp.sources.unix/Volume20: fpc translates FP programs to C.
        comp.sources.unix/volume13: FP by Andy Valencia

FP2 - Functional Parallel Programming.  Term rewrite rules used to specify
algebraic data types and parallel processes.  "Term Rewriting as a Basis
for the Design of a Functional and Parallel Programming Language.  A Case
Study: The Language FP2", Ph. Jorrand in Fundamentals of Artificial
Intelligence, LNCS 258, Springer 1986, pp.221-276.

FP/M - An intermediate language for functional languages, used to implement
Hope.  "The Compilation of FP/M Programs into Conventional Machine Code",
A.J. Field, Imperial College, London, 1985.  "Functional Programming", A.J.
Field & M.C. Harrison, A-W 1988.

FQL - Functional database language.  "An Implementation Technique for
Database Query Languages", O.P. Buneman et al, ACM Trans Database Sys
7(2):164-186 (June 1982).

FrameKit - Frame language.  "The FrameKit User's Guide", E. Nyberg, TR CMU-
CMT-88-MEMO, CMU 1988.

FRANK - "Using BINS for Interprocess Communication", P.C.J. Graham, SIGPLAN
Notices 20(2):32-41 (Feb 1985).

Franz Lisp - (named for the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt (1811-1886)) R.
Fateman et al, UC Berkeley ca 1980.  A subdialect of MACLISP.  "The FRANZ
LISP Manual", J.K. Foderaro et al. UC Berkeley 1980.

FRED - Robert Carr.  Language used by Framework, Ashton-Tate.

Fresh - "Fresh: A Higher-Order Language Based on Unification", G. Smolka,
in Logic Programming: Functions, Relations and Equations", D. DeGroot et
al, P-H 1986, pp.469-524.

FRINGE - C. Katz, GE, 1961.  Subcomponent of GE-255 GECOM system.  Sorting
and merging of data, reports and file maintenance.

FRL - Frame Representation Language.  MIT.  "The FRL Manual", R. Roberts et
al, AI Memo 409, MIT AI Lab, 1977.

FRMT-FTRN - Scientific language, listed [?] 1976.

FSL - Formal Semantics Language.  Language for compiler writing.  "A Formal
Semantics for Computer Languages and its Application in a Compiler-
Compiler", J.A. Feldman, CACM 9(1) (Jan 1966).  Sammet 1969, p.641.

Fugue - Music language, implemented in Xlisp.  "Fugue: A Functional
Language for Sound Synthesis", R.B. Dannenberg et al, Computer 24(7):36-41
(Jul 1991).

Fun - A typed lambda-calculus, similar to SOL[2].  "On Understanding Types,
Data Abstractions and Polymorphism", L. Cardelli et al, ACM Comp Surveys
17(4) (Dec 1985).

FUNLOG - Functional programming plus unification.  "Lazy" in the sense that
expressions are reduced only if they are not unifiable.  "FUNLOG: A
Computational Model Integrating Logic Programming and Functional
Programming", P.A. Subrahmanyam et al, in Logic Programming: Functions,
Relations and Equations, D. DeGroot et al eds, P-H 1986.

FX-87 - Effects.  A polymorphic language based on Scheme, allowing side
effects and first-class functions.  Attempts to integrate functional and
imperative programming.  Expressions have types, side effects (e.g.
reading, writing or allocating) and regions (stating where the effects may

et al, MIT/LCS/TR-407, Oct 1987.  Version: FX-89.

FX-90 - Partial type and effect reconstruction and first-class modules.

G -

  1. "G: A Functional Language with Generic Abstract Data Types", P.A.G.
Bailes, Computer Langs 12(2):69-94 (1987).

  2. Oregon State U 1988.  Combines functional, object-oriented,
relational, imperative and logic programming (you name it we got it).  "The
Multiparadigm Language G", J. Placer, Computer Langs 16:235-258(1991).

G++ - GNU's implementation of C++.
ftp: for Unix

Gabriel - Graphical DSP language for simulation and real systems.  "A
Design Tool for Hardware and Software for Multiprocessor DSP Systems," E.A.
Lee, E. Goei, J. Bier & S. Bhattacharyya, DSP Systems, Proc ISCAS-89, 1989.

GADS - Picture retrieval language.  "Integrated Geographical Databases: The
GADS Experience", P.E. Mantey et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial
Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp.193-198.

Gaelic - For automated test programs.  Used in military, essentially
replaced by ATLAS.

Galaxy - An extensible language in the vein of EL/1 and RCC.  "Introduction
to the Galaxy Language", Anne F. Beetem et al, IEEE Software 6(3):55-62.

Galileo - "Galileo: A Strongly Typed Interactive Conceptual Language", A.
Albano et al, ACM Trans Database Sys 10(2):230-260 (June 1985).

Gambit - Compiler for Scheme R3.99, portable across 680x0 systems.
Supports the 'future' construct of Multilisp.  Version: 1.7.1.


  1. Generating matrices and mathematical programming reports.  "GAMMA 3.3
for MPS/MPSX, IBM System/360", Bonnor & Moore Assocs (Mar 1975).

  2. A high-level parallel language.  Research Directions in High-Level
Parallel Languages, LeMetayer ed, Springer 1992.

GAN - Generating and Analyzing Networks.  "GAN - A System for Generating
and Analyzing Acivity Networks", A. Schurmann, CACM 11(10) (Oct 1968).

GAP - Groups Algorithms and Programming.  Johannes Meier, Alice Niemeyer,
Werner Nickel, Martin Schonert, Aachen 1988.  Symbolic math for
computational group theory.
ftp:, version for Sun.

GAPLog - General Amalgamated Programming with Logic.  LOGPRO group,
Linkoping Sweden.  Restricted version of constraint loic programming, using
S-unification but not restricted to a single domain.  [Chapter in
forthcoming Springer book on ESPRIT]

Gargoyle - For compiler writing.  J.V. Garwick, CACM 7(1):16-20, (Jan

GARP - Graphical language for concurrent programming.  "Visual Concurrent
Programmint in GARP", S.K. Goering er al, PARLE '89 v.II, LNCS 366, pp.165-

GASP - Graph Algorithm and Software Package.  PL/I extension for
programming graph algorithms.  "GASP - Gprah Algorithm Software Package",
S. CHase, TR CS Dept, U Illinois, Dec 1969.

GAT - Generalized Algebraic Translator.  Improved version of IT.  On IBM
650 RAMAC.  Sammet 1969, p.142.

GATE - GAT Extended?  Based on IT.  Sammet 1969, p.139.

GAWK - GNU's implementation of AWK.

G-Code - Johnsson & Augustsson, Chalmers Inst Tech.  Intermediate language
used by the G-machine, an implementation of graph reduction based on
supercombinators.  "Efficient Compilation of Lazy Evaluation", T. Johnsson,
SIGPLAN Notices 19(6):58-69 (June 1984).

GDPL - Generalized Distributed Programming Language.  "GDPL - A Generalized
Distributed Programming Language", K. Ng et al, Proc 4th Intl Conf Distrib
Comp Sys, IEEE 1984, pp.69-78.

GEA - Graph Extended ALGOL.  Extension of ALGOL-60 for graph manipulation,
on UNIVAC 1108.  "A Language for Treating Graphs", S. Crespi-Reghizzi et
al, , CACM 13(5) (May 1970).

GECOM - For the GE-255.  Somewhat akin to COBOL with some ALGOL features
added.  Comprised of ALGOL, COBOL, FRINGE and TABSOL.  FRINGE and TABSOL
may not have actually been implemented.  Sammet 1969, p.329.

Gedanken - John Reynolds, 1970.  "GEDANKEN - A Simple Typeless Language
Based on the Principle of Completeness and the Reference Concept", J.C.
Reynolds, CACM 13(5):308-319 (May 1970).

General Purpose Graphic Language - "A General Purpose Graphic Language",
H.E. Kulsrud, CACM 11(4) (Apr 1968).

Gentleman's Portable Coroutine System - Coroutine package in FORTRAN.  "A
Portable Coroutine System", W.M. Gentleman, Info Proc 71, C.V. Freiman ed,

GEPURS - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Gerald - "Gerald: An Exceptional Lazy Functional Programming Language",
A.C. Reeves et al, in Functional Programming, Glasgow 1989, K. Davis et al
eds, Springer 1990.

GHC - Guarded Horn Clauses.  K. Ueda.  Parallel logic language similar to
Parlog.  Guards and commited-choice nondeterminism.  (See FGHC, KL1).

GIM-1 - Generalized Information Management Language.  Nelson, Pick,
Andrews.  Proc SJCC 29:169-73, AFIPS (Fall 1966).

GIN - Special-purpose macro assembler used to build the GEORGE 3 operating
system for ICL1900 series machines.

GIRL - Graph Information Retrieval Language.  Handling directed graphs.
"Graph Information Retrieval Language", S. Berkowitz, Report 76-0085, Naval
Ship Res Dev Center, (Feb 1976).

GKS - Graphical Kernel System.

Glammar - A pattern transformation language for text-to-text translation,
Used for compiler writing and linguistics.

GLASS - General LAnguage for System Semantics.  Esprit project at KU

Glisp - Generalized LISP.  D.C. Smith, Aug 1990.  A coordinated set of
high-level syntaxes for Common LISP, written in Plisp.

Brian Hicks <>, U Queensland, St. Lucia 1978.  Graphics objects
correspond to language statements (e.g. line, circle, polygon etc).  New
objects defined using procedures.  2-D Transformations are context
dependent and may be nested.

Glypnir - 1966.  An ALGOL-like language with parallel extensions.  Similar
to Actus.  "GLYPNIR - A Programming Language for the Illiac IV", D.H.
Lawrie et al, CACM 18(3) (Mar 1975).

GMAP - GCOS Macro Assembler Program - Macro assembler for the GCOS 8
operating system on Honeywell/Bull DPS-8 machines.  "GCOS8 OS GMAP User's
Guide", Bull.

Gofer - An interpreted Haskell-like language.  "Introduction to Gofer
2.20", M.P.Jones.

GOL - General Operating Language.  Subsystem of DOCUS.  Sammet 1969, p.678.

GOM - Good Old MAD.  Don Boettner, U Mich.  MAD for the IBM 360.  Parts of
the MTS Time-sharing system were written in GOM.

GOSPL - Graphics-Oriented Signal Processing Language.  A graphical DSP
language for simulation.  "Graphic Oriented Signal Processing Language -
GOSPL", C.D. Covington et al, Proc ICASSP-87, 1987.

GP - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).


  1. Generalized Programming Language.  General purpose language akin to
ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.195.

  2. "A Sample Management Application Program in a Graphical Data-driven
Programming language", A.L. Davis et al, Digest of Papers, Compcon Spring
81, Feb 1981, pp.162-167.

GPM - General Purpose Macro-generator.  Text-processing language similar to
TRAC.  "A General Purpose Macrogenerator", C. Strachey, Computer J
8(3):225-241 (Oct 1965).

GPSS - General Purpose Systems Simulator.  Geoffrey Gordon, 1960.  Discrete
simulations.  "The Application of GPSS V to Discrete System Simulation", G.
Gordon, P-H 1975.  Versions include GPSS II (1963), GPSS III (1965),
GPS/360 (1967), and GPSS V (1970).

GPX - Early system on UNIVAC II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

GRAAL - ("Grail")  General Recursive Applicative and Algorithmic Language.
FP with polyadic combinators.  "Graal: A Functional Programming System with
Uncurryfied Combinators and its Reduction Machine", P. Bellot in ESOP 86,
G. Goos ed, LNCS 213, Springer 1986.

GRAF - GRaphic Additions to FORTRAN.  FORTRAN plus graphic data types.
"GRAF: Graphic Additions to FORTRAN", A. Hurwitz et al, Proc SJCC 30
(1967).  Sammet 1969, p.674.

GRAIL - Graphical Input Language.  Flowchart language entered on a grphics
tablet.  "The GRAIL Langauge and Operations", T.O. Ellis et al, RM-6001-
ARPA, RAND, Sept 1969.

GRAIN - Pictorial query language.  "Pictorial Information Systems", S.K.
Chang et al eds, Springer 1980.

Graphic ALGOL - Generation of shaded perspective picures in real time.
"An Extended ALGOL-60 for Shaded Computer Graphics", B. Jones, Proc ACM
Symp on Graphic Languages, Apr 1976.

Graphic Language - For specifying graphic operations.  "A Problem Oriented
Graphic Language", P.J. Schwinn, proc ACM 22nd Natl Conf, 1967.  Sammet
1969, p.677.

GRAPPLE - GRAPh Processing LanguagE.  1968.  "A Directed Graph
Representation for Computer Simulation of Belief Systems", L.G. Tesler et
al, Math Biosciences 2:19-40 (1968).

GREEN - A proposed language to meet the DoD Ironman requirements which led
to Ada.  This language was the winner.  "On the GREEN Language Submitted to
the DoD", E.W. Dijkstra, SIGPLAN Notices 13(10):16-21 (Oct 1978).

GRIND - GRaphical INterpretive Display.  Graphical input language for PDP-
9.  "GRIND: A Language and Translator for COmputer Graphics", A.P. Conn,
Dartmouth, June 1969.

Groff - GNU's implementation of roff.  (See nroff, troff).

GSBL - "GSBL: An Algebraic Specification Language Based on Inheritance", S.
Clerici et al in in ECOOP '88, S. Gjessing et al eds, LNCS 322, Springer
1988, pp.78-92.

GSPL - Greenberg's System Programming Language.  Bernard Greenberg.

GVL - Graphical View Language.  T.C.N. Graham & J.R. Cordy, Queen's U.
Canada.  A visual language for specifying interactive graphical output.
"GVL: A Graphical, Functional Language for the Specification of Output in
Programming Languages", J.R. Cordy & T.C.N. Graham, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on
Comp Lang ICCL'90 (March 1990).

GW-BASIC - "Gee Whiz" BASIC.  Microsoft's BASIC with graphic extensions.

Gypsy - Specification and verification of concurrent systems software.
Message passing using named mailboxes.  Separately compilable units:
routine (procedure, function, or process), type and constant definition,
each with a list of access rights. "Report on the Language Gypsy", A.L.
Ambler et al, UT Austin ICSCS-CMP-1 Aug 1976.

HAL/S - Real-time language used by NASA for onboard shuttle software.
"Two-Dimensional Characteristics of HAL, A Language for Spaceflight
Applications", J.S. Miller, SIGPLAN Notices 7(10) (Oct 1972).

HALGOL - Hewlett-Packard.  A simple language for communicating with devices
such as modems and X.25 PADs.

HALMAT - Intermediate language used by HAL/S.

Haskell - (named for the logician Haskell B. Curry).  1990.  Designed by a
committee from the functional programming community.  A lazy purely
functional language largely derived from Miranda.  Static polymorphic
typing, higher-order functions, user-defined algebraic data types, and
pattern-matching list comprehensions.  Innovations include a class system,
operator overloading, functional I/O system, functional arrays, and
separate compilation.   "Report on the Programming Language Haskell Version
1.1", Paul Hudak & P. Wadler eds, CS Depts, U Glasgow and Yale U. (Aug

Yale Haskell - implemented in T, for SPARCstations.

Glasgow Haskell - for Suns

Haskell B. - Implemented in LML, supports Haskell 1.2, runs on Sun 3's and
4's, DECstation 3100 and Sequent Symmetry.

ftp:, "hbc"

HASL - SASL plus conditional unification.  "A Prological Definition of
HASL, A Purely Functional Language with Unification Based Conditional
Binding Expressions", H. Abramson in Logic Programming: Functions,
Relations and Equations, D. DeGroot et al eds, P-H 1986.

HCLP - Hierarchical CLP.  "Constraint Hierarchies and Logic Programming",
A. Borning et al, in Proc Sixth Intl Logic Prog Conf, June 1989, pp. 149-

HCPRVR - "HCPRVR: An Interpreter for Logic Programs", D. Chester in Proc
First Natl Conf on AI, Stanford, 1980.

HDFL - Single assignment language.  "Methods for Handling Structures in
Data-Flow Systems", J.L. Gaudiot, Proc 12th Intl Symp Comp Arch, June 1985.


HELP - DEA.  Language for industrial robots.

HEQS - E. Derman.  Constraint language for financial modeling.  Uses an
extension of the equation solver in IDEAL.  "A Simple Equation Solver and
Its Application to Financial Modeling", E. Derman et al, Soft Prac & Exp
14(12):1169-1181 (Dec 1984).

HERAKLIT - A distributed object-oriented language.  "Definition einer
objektorientierten Programmiersprache mit hierarchischem Typkonzept", B.
Hindel, diss U Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dec 1987.

Hermes - IBM, June 1990.  An imperative, strongly typed process-oriented
language for complex distributed systems.  A follow-on effort to NIL[2].
Threads, relational tables, typestate checking, capability-based access,
dynamic configuration.  "Hermes: A Language for Distributed Computing", R.
Strom et al, P-H 1991, ISBN 0-13-389537-8.
ftp: 0.7alpha for Unix

HIBOL - A variant of DIBOL, used in Infotec computers.

HiLog - W. Chen et al, Stony Brook, 1989.  Logic programming in higher
order logic.  "HiLog as a Platform for Database Languages (Or Why Predicate
Calculus is Not Enough)", W. Chen et al, 2nd Intl Workshop on Database Prog
Langs, Morgan Kaufmann, 1989.

HINT - Hierarchical Information NeTs.  For CDC 3600.  "HINT: A Graph
Processing Language", R.D. Hart, Michigan State U, Apr 1970.

HLISP - "Monocopy and Associative Algorithms in an Extended Lisp", E. Goto,
U Tokyo May 1974.

HOL - Higher Order Logic.  A proof-generating system for higher order logic
based on LCF.  "HOL: A Machine Oriented Formulation of Higher Order Logic",
M.J.C. Gordon, Report 68, Comp Lab U Cambridge (1985).

ftp: for Sun 4

Honeywell-800 Business Compiler - Another name for FACT.  Sammet 1969,

Hope - ("springs eternal" and so forth.)  R.M. Burstall, U Edinburgh 1978.
Functional language with polymorphic types and lazy lists.  First language
to use call-by-pattern.  "HOPE, an Experimental Applicative Language", R.M.
Burstall et al, Conf Record 1980 LISP Conf, p.136-143 (Aug 1980), "A HOPE
Tutorial", R. Bailey, BYTE Aug 1985, pp.235-258.  "Functional Programming
with Hope", R. Bailey, Ellis Horwood 1990.
ftp:  PC Hope, plus a lazy variant for Unix,

Hope+ - Alvey Flagship project, Imperial College.  An extension of Hope
with real numbers, vectors, call-by-WHNF.  "Hope+", N. Perry, Imperial
College, IC/FPR/LANG/2.5.1/7, 1988.

Hope+C - Alvey Flagship project, Imperial College.  Further evolution of
Hope+ with continuation-based I/O, coroutines, and RFC's.  For Sun-3's with
Motorola FPU's.  (See Massey Hope).

HOS-STPL - Hospital Operating System - STructured Programming Language.  A
FORTRAN-like language with structured extensions.  "HOS-STPL User Manual",
Health Services Research, US Public Health Service (Jan 1975).

HPcode - Stack-based intermediate language used by HP in many of its
compilers for RISC and stack-based architectures.  Supports Fortran, Ada,
Pascal, COBOL and C++.  Descended from Stanford's U-code.

HPCode-Plus - Descendant of HPcode with data types, developed to be an ANDF
language.  "ANDF: Finally an UNCOL After 30 Years", M.E. Benitez, Jack

(See ANDF).

HP-GL - Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language.  Vector graphics language used
by HP plotters.

HP-GL/2 - "HP-GL/2 Programmer's Guide", No. 5959-9733, HP.  (See PCL.)

HPL - Language used in HP9825A/S/T "Desktop Calculators", 1978(?) and
ported to the early Series 200 family (9826 and 9836, MC68000).  Fairly
simple and standard, but with extensive I/O support for data acquisition
and control (BCD, Serial, 16 bit custom and IEEE-488 interfaces), including
interrupt handling.  Currently owned by Structured Software Systems.  "HPL
Operating Manual for Series 200, Models 216, 226 and 235\6", HP 98614-
90010, Jan 1984.

HSL-FX - Hierarchical Specification Language - Function Extension.

HUGO - Geac.  A bytecode-interpreted transaction handler.

Hybrid - Concurrent object-oriented language.  "Active Objects in Hybrid",
O.M. Nierstrasz, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):243-253 (OOPSLA '87) (Dec 1987).

Hyperscript - Informix.  The object-based programming language for Wingz,
used for creating charts, graphs, graphics, and customized data entry.

HyperTalk - The programming language for Macintosh HyperCard.

HyTime - A hypermedia extension of SGML.  "The HyTime Hypermedia/Time-based
Document Structuring Language", S. Newcomb et al, CACM 34(11):67-83 (Nov

IAL - International Algebraic Language.  Original name of ALGOL 58.
"Preliminary report - International Algebraic Language", CACM 1(12):8

IAM - Interactive Algebraic Manipulation.  Interactive symbolic math for
PDP-10.  "IAM, A System for Interactive Algebraic Manipulation", C.
Christensen et al, Proc Second Symp Symb Alg Manip, ACM Mar 1971.

IBEX - Command language for Honeywell's CP-6 OS.

ICES - Integrated Civil Engineering System.  Subsystems include COGO,
include ICETRAN and CDL.  "An Integrated Computer System for Engineering
Problem Solving", D. Roos, Proc SJCC 27(2), AFIPS (Spring 1965).  Sammet
1969, pp.615-620.

ICETRAN - An extension of FORTRAN IV.  Component of ICES.  Sammet 1969,

Icon - Griswold, 1970's.  A descendant of SNOBOL4 with Pascal-like syntax.
Icon is a general-purpose language with special features for string
scanning.  Dynamic types.  The central theme of Icon is the generator: when
an expression is evaluated it may be suspended and later resumed, producing
a result sequence of values until it fails.  Resumption takes place
implicitly in two contexts: iteration which is syntactically loop-like
('every-do'), and goal-directed evaluation in which a conditional
expression automatically attempts to produce at least one result.
Expressions that fail are used in lieu of Booleans.  Data backtracking is
supported by a reversible assignment.  Icon also has co-expressions, which
can be explicitly resumed at any time.  "The Icon Programming Language",
Ralph & Marge Griswold, 2nd ed P-H 1990.

Iconicode - 1990-1992.  Visual dataflow language, token-based with
hierarchical, recursive and iterative constructs.  Version: IDF with
extensions for image processing.  "IDF: A Graphical Data Flow Programming
Language for Image Processing and Computer Vision", Neil Hunt, Proc IEEE
Conf on Systems Man & {*filter*}netics, IEEE, Nov 1990.  Available from Iconicon

IC-Prolog - Clark & McCabe, 1979.  Logic language with coroutining.  "IC-

Programming, K.L. Clark et al eds, pp.253-266, Academic Press 1982.

Id - Irvine Dataflow.  Arvind & Gostelow.  Single assignment language, used
on MIT's Tagged-Token Dataflow Architecture (and soon on Motorola's
Monsoon).  Incrementally compiled, non-strict.  "An Asynchronous
Programming Language for a Large Multiprocessor Machine", Arvind et al,
TR114a, Dept ISC, UC Irvine, Dec 1978.  "The U-Interpreter", Arvind et al,
Computer 15(2):42-50 (1982).  (See Id Nouveau).

IDAMS - Pictorial retrieval language, implemented in APL.  "Concept of the
Diagnostic Image Workstation", D. Meyer-Ebrecht, Proc 2nd Conf on Picture
Archiving (PACS II), SPIE 418, pp.180-183 (1983).

IDEA - Interactive Data Entry/Access.  Data General.  A language in which
you designed the screen first, and then wrote the program around the
predefined fields.  Precursor to the DG COBOL Screen Section.

IDEAL - Van Wyk, Stanford 1980.  Numerical constraint language for
typesetting graphics into documents.  Inspired partly by Metafont.  "A
High-Level Language for Specifying Pictures", C.J. Van Wyk, ACM Trans
Graphics 1(2):163-182 (Apr 1982).  Distributed as part of Troff.


  1. Interactive Data analysis Language.  Xerox.  Built on Interlisp-D.

  2. Interface Description Language.  Nestor, Lamb & Wulf, CMU 1981.
Description of data structures to be passed between the components of an
application, to provide a language-independent intermediate representation.
"The Interface Description Language", R. Snodgrass, Computer Science Press
1989.  Also SIGPLAN Notices 22(11) (Nov 1987) special issue.

IDMS - Pictorial query language, an extension of Sequel2.  "A Management
System for an Integrated Database of Pictures and Alphanumeric Data", G.Y.
Tang, Computer Graphics Image Processing 16:270-286 (1981).

MIT, ca. 1986.  Dataflow language, began as a functional language, added
streams, resource managers and I-structures (mutable arrays).  Loops are
syntactic sugar for tail recursion.  "Id Nouveau Reference Manual", R.S.
Nikhil, CS TR, MIT, March 1988.  "Id (Version 90.1) Reference Manual", R.S.
Nikhil, CSG Memo 284-2, LCS MIT, July 15, 1991.  (See Id).

IDOL - Icon-Derived Object Language.  Object-oriented preprocessor for
Icon.  "Programming in Idol: An Object Primer", C.L. Jeffery, U Arizona CS
TR #90-10.

IDS/I - Integrated Data Store.  Extension to COBOL involving "chains"
(circular lists), for GE computers.  "A General Purpose Programming System
for Random Access Memories", C.W. Bachman et al, Proc FJCC 26(1), AFIPS
(Fall 1964).  Sammet 1969, p.376.

IF1 - Graph language used as an intermediate language for dataflow
hardware.  Used by the OSC SISAL compiler.  "The Manchester Prototype
Dataflow Computer", J.R. Gurd et al, CACM 28(1):34-52 (Jan 1985).

IF2 - Graph language used by the OSC SISAL compiler.

IFIP - Subset of ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.180.

IFP - Illinois FP.  Arch Robinson.  Variant of FP with Algol-like syntax.
"The Illinois Functional Programming Interpreter", A.D. Robison, Proc 1987
SIGPLAN Conf on Interpreters and Interpretive Techniques (June 1987).
"Illinois Functional Programming: A Tutorial", A.D. Robison, BYTE Feb 1987.
ftp: - Versions for Unix and MS-DOS

IFX - "Type Reconstruction with First-Class Polymorphic Values", J. O'Toole
et al, SIGPLAN Notices 24(7):207-217 (Jul 1989).

IGL - Interactive Graphic Language.  Used primarily by Physics Dept at
Brooklyn Poly, uses numerical methods on vectors to approximate continuous
function problems that don't have closed form solutions. [Is this being
confused with Tektronix's graphics library by the same name?]

IIS - Idealized Instruction Set.  Assembly language for the Flagship
parallel machine.  "An Idealized Instruction Set for a Packet Rewrite
Machine", J. Sargeant, Manchester U, 1988.

IITRAN - Simple PL/I-like language for students, on IBM 360.  "The IITRAN
Programming Language", R. Dewar et al, CACM 12(10):569-575 (Oct 1969).

ILIAD - Real time language.  "On the Design of a Language for Programming
Real-Time Concurrent Processes", H.A. Schutz, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-
5(3):248-255 (May 1979).

ILLIAC - Assembly language for the ILLIAC computer.  Listed in CACM
2(5):16, (May 1959) p.16.

ILOC - Rice U.  Register-oriented intermediate language targeted to PC/RT.
Source languages include FORTRAN and Russell.


  1. IMProved Mercury Autocode.  Used to code the Edinburgh Multi Access

Sun, 19 Feb 1995 06:21:21 GMT  
 [ 1 post ] 

 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 9 of 9

2. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 8 of 9

3. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 7 of 9

4. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 6 of 9

5. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 5 of 9

6. The language List Version 1.8 - Part 3 of 9

7. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 2 of 9

8. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 1 of 9

9. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

11. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)


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