The language List Version 1.8 - Part 3 of 9 
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 The language List Version 1.8 - Part 3 of 9

Lisp: Languages and Systems, T. Ito et al eds, LNCS 441, Springer 1989.

ConcurrentSmalltalk - Concurrent variant of Smalltalk (what did you
expect).  "Concurrent Programming in ConcurrentSmalltalk", Y. Yokote et al
in Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming, A. Yonezawa et al eds, MIT Press
1987, pp.129-158.

CONIC - "Dynamic Configuration for Distributed Systems", J. Kramer et al,
IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-11(4):424-436 (Apr 1985).

Connection Machine LISP - LISP with a parallel data structure, the
'xapping', an array of values assigned to an array of sites.  G.L. Steele
et al, "Connection Machine LISP: Fine-Grained Parallel Symbolic
Processing", in Proc 1986 ACM Conf on LISP and Functional Prog, Aug 1986,
pp.279-297.  "Connection Machine LISP Reference Manual", Thinking Machines
Corp, Feb 1987.

CONNIVER - AI language for automatic theorem proving.  An outgrowth of
PLANNER.  Allowed multiple database contexts with hypothetical assertions.
"The CONNIVER Reference Manual", D. McDermott & G.J. Sussman

CONSTRAINTS - Constraints using value inference.  "CONSTRAINTS: A Language
for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif
Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980).

Consul - Constraint-based [future-based?] language with LISP-like syntax.
"Consul: A Parallel Constraint Language", D. Baldwin, IEEE Software


  1. String processing language, an extension of LISP with pattern matching
and transformation operations.  "Convert", A. Guzman et al, CACM 9(8):604-
615 (Aug 1966).

  2. Early language to convert programs and data from one language to
another.  "CONVERT Manual", OLI Systems Inc (Oct 1976).


  1. Concurrent Object-Oriented Language.  A parallel version of C++.
"COOL: A Language for Parallel Programming", R. Chandra

Computing, D. Gelernter et al eds, MIT Press 1990, pp.126-148.

  2. CLIPS Object-Oriented Language?

C{*filter*}- Class Oriented Ring Associated Language.  L.G. Roberts, MIT 1964.
Graphical display and systems programming on the TX-2.  Used "rings"
(circular lists) from Sketchpad.  "Graphical Communication and Control
Languages", L.B. Roberts, Information System Sciences: Proc Second
Congress, 1965.  Sammet 1969, p.462.

C{*filter*}66 - Real-time system programming language, a derivative of JOVIAL
and ALGOL-60.  It was adopted as the British military standard from 1970
until the arrival of Ada.  "Official Definition of C{*filter*}66", P.M. Woodward
et al, HMSO, London, 1970.

CORBIE - Early system on IBM 704.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

CORC - CORnell Compiler.  Simple language for student math problems.  "The
Cornell Computing Language", R.W. Conway et al, CACM 6(6):317-320 (Jun
1963)  Sammet 1969, p.294-296.

Coroutine Pascal - "Control Separation in Programming languages", Lemon et
al, ACM Ann Conf 1977.

CORREGATE - Based on IT.  Sammet 1969, p.139.

Correlatives and Conversions - Data description language used in the Pick
OS.  "Exploring the Pick Operating System", J.E. Sisk et al, Hayden 1986.

Coursewriter III - ca. 1976.  Simple CAI language.  "Coursewriter III,
Version 3 Author's Guide", SH20-1009, IBM.

CP - A concurrent Prolog.  "The Concurrent Logic Programming Language CP":
Definition and Operational Semantics", V. Saraswat, 14th POPL, ACM 1987,

OPS5, written in C and compiling to C.  Available for Unix, Mach, Encore
Multimaxen, and Sequent.  Version: 5.4.

CPL - Combined Programming Language.  U Cambridge and U London.  Similar to
ALGOL 60 but quite complex.  Never fully implemented, died with the Atlas
computer.  Led to the much simpler BCPL.  "The Main Features of CPL", D.W.
Barron et al, Computer J 6(2):134-143 (Jul 1963).

implementation of Prolog in C.  No garbage collection.


  1. Conversational Programming System.  Allen-Babcock Corp, 1965.
Interactive extended subset of PL/I.  "Conversational Programming System
under TSO (PBPO), Terminal User's Manual", SH20-1197, IBM.  Sammet 1969,

  2. Continuation Passing Style.  A semantically clean language with
continuations, has been used as an intermediate language for Scheme and the
SML/NJ compiler.  "Rabbit: A Compiler for Scheme", G.L. Steele, AI-TR-474,
MIT (May 1978).  "Compiling With Continuations", A. Appel, Cambridge U
Press 1992.

CRISP - Jeff Barnett, SDC, Santa Monica CA, early 70's.  A LISP-like
language and compiler for the IBM 370.  Differences from LISP included a
generalization of 2-part cons nodes to n-part.

CRL - Carnegie Representation Language.  (c)Carnegie Group Inc.  Frame
language derived from SRL.  Written in Common LISP.  Used in the product
Knowledge Craft.

CROSSTABS - Simple language for statistical analysis of tabular data.
"User's Manual for the CROSSTABS System", Cambridge Computer Assoc (Feb

Crystal - Concurrent Representation of Your Space-Time ALgorithms.  A
recursion equation parallel language.  "A Parallel Language and its
Compilation to Multiprocessor Machines or VLSI", M.C. Chen, 13th POPL, ACM
1986 pp.131-139.

CS-4 - [?]  Mentioned in "An Overview of Ada", J.G.P. Barnes, Soft Prac &
Exp 10:851-887 (1980).

CS-Prolog - Distributed logic language.  "CS-Prolog on Multi-Transputer
Systems", I. Futo et al, Microprocessors & Microsystems, March 1989.

C-Scheme - Joe Bartlett at DEC/WRL?  Dialect of Scheme implemented in and
embeddable in C.

csh - C-Shell.  William Joy.  Command shell interpreter and script language
for Unix.


  1. Computer Structure Language.  A computer hardware description
language, written in BCPL.  "Computer Structure Language (CSL)", Proc 1975
Symp on Comp Hardware Description Languages and their Appl, ACM (Sep 1975).

  2. Control and Simulation Language.  "Control and Simulation Language",
J.N. Buxton et al, Computer J 5(3):194-199 (Oct 1962).  Version: CSL II.

CSM - "CSM - A Distributed Programming Language", S. Zhongxiu et al, IEEE
Trans Soft Eng SE-13(4):497-500 (Apr 1987).

CSMP - Continuous System Modeling Program.  Simulation of dynamics of
continuous systems.  Similar to CSSL.  "A Guide to Using CSMP - The
Continuous System Modeling Program", Frank H. Speckhart et al, P-H 1976.

CSP - Communicating Sequential Processes.  1978.  A notation for
concurrency based on synchronous message passing and selective
communications.  cobegin/coend.  "Communicating Sequential Processes", A.R.
Hoare, P-H 1985.

CSP/80 - Based on CSP.  "CSP/80: A Language for Communicating Processes",
M. Jazayeri et al, Proc Fall COMPCON80, IEEE pp.736-740 (Sept 1980).

CS/PCode - Used at Microsoft.

CSP/k - Concurrent SP/k.  A PL/I-like concurrent language.  "Structured
Concurrent Programming with Operating System Applications", R.C. Holt et
al, A-W 1978.

CSP-S - "Implementation of CSP-S for Description of Distributed
Algorithms", L. Patniak et al, Comput Lang 9(3):193-202 (1984).

CSPS - "Toward Comprehensive Specification of Distributed Systems", G.
Roman et al, Proc 7th Intl Conf on Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1987, pp.282-289.

CS/QCode - Used at Microsoft.

CSS/II - Computer System Simulator II.  Like GPSS, for IBM 360.  "Computer
System Simulator II (CSS II) Program Description and Operations Manual",
SH20-0875, IBM.

CSSA - Object-oriented language.  "Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer
Project", J. Nehmer et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987).

CSSL - Continuous System Simulation Language.  Versions include ACSL,
HYTRAN, SL-I, S/360 and CSMP.  "The SCi Continuous System Simulation
Language (CSSL)", Simulation, 9(6) (Dec 1967).

CSTools - Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.


  1. Checkout Test language.  "Checkout Test Language: An Interpretive
Language Designed for Aerospace Checkout Tasks", G.S. Metsker, Proc FJCC
33(2) (1968).

  2. Compiler Target Language.  Intermediate language used by the ALICE
parallel machine.  "The Design and Implementation of ALICE: A Parallel
Graph Reduction Machine", M.D. Cripps et al, Proc Workshop on Graph
Reduction, Springer 1987.

Cube - Three-dimensional visual language for higher-order logic.  "The Cube
Language", M. Najork et al, 1991 IEEE Workshop on Visual Langs, Oct 1991,

CUCH - CUrry-CHurch.  Lambda-calculus.  "A Type-Theoretical Alternative to
CUCH, ISWIM, OWHY", Dana Scott, Oxford U 1969.  "Introduction to the CUCH",
C. Bohm et al, in Automata Theory, E.R. Caianiello ed, A-P 1966, pp.35-65.

Culler-Fried System - System for interactive mathematics.  Sammet 1969,

CUPID - Graphic query language.  "CUPID: A Graphic Oriented Facility for
Support of Nonprogrammer Interactions with a Datablase",  N. McDonald, PhD
Thesis, CS Dept, UC Berkeley 1975.

CUPL - Cornell University Programming Language.  Simple math problems,
based on CORC, with PL/I-like syntax.  "An Instruction Language for CUPL",
R.J. Walker, Cornell U, Jul 1967,

CWIC - Compiler for Writing and Implementing Compilers.  Val Schorre.  One
of the early metacompilers.  (cf. Meta-II).

CYBIL - Control Data's system programming language in the 80's.  Major
parts of CDC systems written in this.

CYCL - Frame language.  "Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems", D.B.
Lenat et al, A-W 1990.

CypherText - Interactive language for text formatting and typesetting.
"CypherText: An Extensible Composing and Typesetting Language", C.G. Moore
et al, Proc FJCC 37, AFIPS (Fall 1970).

D -

  1. "The Data Language."  MS-DOS 4GL.

  2. A Haskell-like language, with type classes.

DACAPO - Broad-range hardware specification language.  "Mixed Level
Modelling and Simulation of VLSI Systems", F.J. Rammig in Logic Design and
Simulation, E. Horbst ed, N-H 1986.

DACTL - Declarative Alvey Compiler Target Language.  U East Anglia.  An
intermediate language.  "DACTL - A Computational Model and Compiler Target
Language Based on Graph Reduction", J.R.W. Glauert et al, ICL Tech J 5(3)
(1987).  Version: Dactl0.  (See Lean, Parallel SML).

Daisy - Functional.  "Daisy Programming Manual", S.D. Johnson, CS Dept TR,
Indiana U, 1988.

DAISY 201 - Early system on G-15.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

DAP fortran - "Efficient High Speed Computing with the Distributed Array
Processor", P.M. Flanders et al, pp.113-127 (1977). [same as Fortran-

DAPLEX - "The Functional Data Model and the Data Language DAPLEX", D.W.
Shipman, ACM Trans Database Sys, 6(1):140-173 (Mar 1981).

DARE - Differential Analyzer REplacement.  A family of simulation languages
for continuous systems.  "Digital Continuous System Simulation", G.A. Korn
et al, P-H 1978.

Darms - Music language.  "The Darms Project: A Status Report", R.F.
Erickson, Computers and the Humanities 9(6):291-298 (June 1975).

Dartmouth BASIC - Term for the original BASIC by Kemeny & Kurtz.

DAS - Digital Analog Simulator.  Represents analog computer design.

DASL - Datapoint's Advanced System Language.  Gene Hughes.  A cross between
C and Pascal with custom features for Datapoint hardware (no stack), used
internally by Datapoint.

Data/BASIC - Also known as Pick BASIC.  A BASIC-like language with database
capabilities, the main programming language on the Pick OS.  "The
Data/BASIC Language - A Data Processing Language for Non-Professional
Programmers", P.C. Dressen, Proc SJCC 36, AFIPS (Spring 1970).

DATABUS - DATApoint BUSiness Language.  Like an interpreted assembly
language, used for custom applications on Datapoint machines.

DATACODE I - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16
(May 1959).

Data Parallel C - Hatcher & Quinn [?]

Data Structures Language - MAD dialect with extensions for lists and
graphics, on Philco 212.  "A Compiler Language for Data Structures", N.
Laurance, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf 36 (1968).

DATA-TEXT - Harvard.  Numerical computations in the Social Sciences.
"DATA-TEXT Primer", D.J. Armor, Free Press 1972.

DataVis - Dataflow language for scientific visualization.  "Data Flow
Visual Programming Languages", D. Hils, J Vis Langs and Comput, Dec 1991.

dBASE - Language used by the dBASE system.  First release was dBASE II, ca
1980.  (There never was a "dBASE I")  Later versions: dBASE III, dBASE
III+, and dBASE IV.

DBC - Data-parallel Bit-serial C.  SRC, Bowie MD.  Based on MPL.

dBFAST - dBASE dialect for MS-DOS, MS-Windows.

DBPL - Procedural language with relational database constructs.  A
successor to Pascal/R and Modula/R.  "DBPL Report", J.W. Schmidt et al,
DBPL-Memo 111-88, Fachbereich Informatik, Johann Wolfgang
Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt, Germany, 1988.

dBXL - dBASE-like interpreter/language for MS-DOS from WordTech, Orinda,

DCALGOL - Data Communications ALGOL.  A superset of Burroughs Extended
ALGOL used for writing Message Control Systems.

DCDL - Digital Control Design Language.  A language for simulating computer
systems.  "DCDS Digital Simulating System", H. Potash et al, Proc FJCC 35,
AFIPS (Fall 1969).

DCG - A variant of BNF.


  1. DIGITAL Command Language.  The interactive command and scripting
language for VAX/VMS.

  2. delphi Common LISP.  An implementation of Common LISP that has been
used as a basis for CLOS.


  1. "A Digital System Design Language" (DDL)", J.R. Duley, IEEE Trans on
Computers c-17(9):850-861 (Sep 1968).

  2. M. Urban, C. Kostanick et al, UCLA Computer Club.  An adventure
language, the forerunner of ADL.

  3. Data Definition Language.  Specification language for a database based
on the entity-relationship model.  Used in the Eli compiler-compiler to
manage type definitions.  "DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado,

DDM - Dataflow language.  "The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A
Recursively Structured Data Driven Machine", A. Davis, Proc 5th Ann Symp
Comp Arch, IEEE 1978.

DEACON - Direct English Access and CONtrol.  English-like query system.
Sammet 1969, p.668.

Delirium - An embedding coordinate language for parallel programming,
implemented on Sequent Symmetry, Cray, BBN Butterfly.  "Parallel
Programming with Coordination Structures", S. Lucco et al, 18th POPL,
pp.197-208 (1991).

Delta - J.C. Cleaveland 1978.  Expression-based.

Delta-Prolog - Prolog extension with AND-parallelism, don't-know
nondeterminism and interprocess communication using synchronous event
goals.  Distributed backtracking.  "Delta-Prolog: A Distributed Logic
Programming Language", L.M. Pereira et al, Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, Nov

DEMON - Program generator for differential equation problems.  N.W.
Bennett, Australian AEC Research Establishment, AAEC/E142, Aug 1965.

Design System language - J. Gaffney, Evans & Sutherland 1976.  Interpretive
FORTH-like language for 3-D graphics databases.  Earliest forerunner of
both Interpress and postscript.  Mentioned in "PostScript Language
Reference Manual", Adobe Systems, A-W 1985.

DETAB - DEcision TABle.  A. Chapman, 1964.  Decision table preprocessor for
COBOL.  Sammet 1969, p.315.  Versions: DETAB 65, DETAB X.

DETOL - Directly Executable Test Oriented Language.  Simple language to
control a specific type of test equipment.  "Improved DETOL Programming
Manual for the Series 5500 Automatic Test System, Pub. 5500-31-0-1, AAI
Corp. (Sep 1973).

DFC - Dataflow language.

DG/L -

  1. Descriptive Geometry Language.  Early CAD/CAE language, used light
pen.  "Interactive Graphic Consoles - Environment and Software", R.L.
Beckermeyeer, Proc FJCC 37 (1970).

  2. Data General ca 1973-1974.  Derivative of ALGOL 60, developed from
DG's Algol-5, used as the systems language under AOS and RDOS for the DG
Eclipse family of computers.  Replaced by PL/I in the early 80's.  Data
General manual 093-000229-01.

DIALOG - Illinois Inst Tech, 1966.  Interactive math using graphics tablet.
"DIALOG: A Conversational Programming System with a Graphical Orientation",
S.H. Cameron et al, CACM 10:349-357 (1967).  Sammet 1969, p.255-258.

DIAMAG - An interactive extension of ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.195.

Diamond - One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms,
used in "Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the
Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London
(1968).  (cf. Brilliant, Nonpareil, Pearl[3], Ruby[2]).

DIANA - Descriptive Intermediate Attributed Notation for Ada.  Goos & Wulf,
CMU 1981.  A de facto standard intermediate representation for Ada
programs.  A tree-structured representation with an abstract interface
defined in IDL.  Resulted from a merger of AIDA and TCOL.Ada.  "DIANA - An
Intermediate Language for Ada", G.T. Goos et al, LNCS 161, Springer 1983.

DIBOL - DIgital Business Oriented Language.  DEC for RT-11.  FORTRAN syntax
with BCD arithmetic.

Dictionary APL - nickname for Sharp APL.

Dijkstra's guarded command language - Edsger Dijkstra, ca. 1974.
Introduced the concept of guards and committed choice [=don't care]
nondeterminism.  Described and used in "A Discipline of Programming", E.
Dijkstra, P-H 1976.

DIMATE - Depot Installed Maintenance Automatic Test Equipment.  For
automatic equipment tests, on RCA 301.  "A Simple User-Oriented Source
Language for Programming Automatic Test Equipment", B.H. Scheff, CACM 9(4)
(Apr 1966).  Sammet 1969, p.647.

Dino - Data parallel language, a superset of C.  "Dino: Summary and
Examples", M. Rosing et al, "Third Conf on Hypercube Concurrent Computers
and Appls", pp. 472-481, ACM 1988.

Disiple - DSP language.  "A Compiler that Easily Retargets High Level
Language Programs for Different Signal Processing Architectures", J.E.
Peters & S.M. Dunn, Proc ICASSP 89, pp.1103-1106, (May 1989).

Dislang - "Dislang: A Distributed Programming Language/System", C. Li et
al, Proc 2nd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1981, pp.162-172.

Distributed Eiffel - "Distributed Eiffel: A Language for Programming Multi-
Granular Distributed Objects on the Clouds Operating System", L. Gunaseelan
et al, IEEE Conf Comp Langs, 1992.

Distributed Processes - (Also "DP").  First concurrent language based on
remote procedure calls.  "Distributed Processes: A Concurrent Programming
Concept", P. Brinch Hansen CACM 21(11):934-940 (Nov 1978).

Distributed Smalltalk - "The Deisgn and Implementation of DIstributed
Smalltalk", J. Bennett, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):318-330 (Dec 1980).

DL/1 - Query language, linear keyword.

DMAD - Diagnostic Machine Aid-Digital.  Functional testing of digital
devices.  "DMAD M/MM Manual", BR-8392, Raytheon Co. (Oct 1973).

DMALGOL - ALGOL with extensions to interface to DMS II, the Burroughs


  1. Data Management Language.  Early ALGOL-like language with lists,
graphics, on Honeywell 635.  "DML: A Data Management Language", D.W. Bray
et al, GE, Syracuse NY.

  2. "DML: A Meta-language and System for the Generation of Practical and
Efficient Compilers from Denotational Specifications", M. Pettersson et al,
IEEE Conf Comp Langs, 1992.

Doc - Directed Oc.  "Programming Language Doc and Its Self-Description, or
'X=X Is Considered Harmful'", M. Hirata, Proc 3rd Conf Japan Soc Soft Sci
Tech, pp.69-72 (1986).

DOCUS - Display Oriented Computer Usage System.  Interactive system using
push buttons.  Sammet 1969, p.678

DOUGLAS - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

DOL - Display Oriented Language.  Subsystem of DOCUS.  Sammet 1969, p.678.

DOW COMPILER - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16
(May 1959).

d-Prolog - Prolog extended with defeasible reasoning.
ftp: for MS-DOS and Unix

DPL-82 - "DPL-82: A LAnguage for Distributed Processing", L. Ericson, PRoc
3rd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1982, pp.526-531.

DPS - Real-time language with direct expression of timing requests.
"Language Constructs for Distributed Real-Time PRogramming", I. Lee et al
Proc IEEE Real-Time Sys Symp pp.57-66 (Dec 1985).

draco - Chris Gray, 1987.  A blend of Pascal, C and ALGOL 68.  Implemented
for CP/M-80 and Amiga.

DRAGON - Implementation language used by BTI Computer Systems.

DRAGOON - Colin Atkinson, Imperial College 1989.  (current address:

object-oriented programming to embeddable systems.  Presently implemented
as a preprocessor to Ada.  "Object-Oriented Reuse, Concurrency and
Distribution: An Ada-Based Approach", C. Atkinson, A-W 1991, ISBN 0-2015-6-

DRUCO I - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

DSL - Digital Simulation Language.  Extensions to FORTRAN to simulate
analog computer functions.  "DSL/90 - A Digital Simulation Program for
Continuous System Modelling", Proc SJCC 28, AFIPS (Spring 1966).  Version:
DSL/90 for the IBM 7090.  Sammet 1969, p.632.


  1. Data Structure Manager.  J.E. Rumbaugh and M.E. Loomis, GE.  Object-
oriented language similar to C++, used in implementation of CAD/CAE
software.  DSM is written in itself and C, and produces C as output.  "DSM:
An Object-Relationship Modeling Language", A. Shah et al, SIGPLAN Notices
24(10):191-202 (OOPSLA '89) (Oct 1989).

  2. DIGITAL Standard MUMPS.  DEC.  (See MUMPS).

DSP/C - Numerical extension to C, for DSP applications.  "DSP/C: A Standard
High Level Language for DSP and Numeric Processing", K. Leary & W.
Waddington, Proc ICASSP 90, Apr 1990, pp.1065-1068.

DSP32 Assembly Language - A high-level assembly language for the DSP32
Programmable DSP Chip.

DSPL:  Digital Signal Processing Language.  A C-derived DSP language.  "The
Programming Language DSPL", A. Schwarte & H. Hanselmann, Proc PCIM 90,

DTALGOL - Decision Table Algol.  Victoria U, Wellington.  An ALGOL superset
that added Decision Tables.  On Burroughs Large System.

DUAL-607 - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Dual FCP - [?]

Durra - "Durra: A Task-level Description Language", M.R. Barbacci et al,
CMU/SEI-86-TR-3, CMU 1986.

DYANA - DYnamics ANAlyzer.  Early specialized language for vibrational and
other dynamic systems.  Sammet 1969, p.628.

Dylan - Advanced Technology Group East, Apple Computer.  An object-oriented
dialect of Scheme.  Recent AI Expert issue?

DYNAMO - DYNamic MOdels.  Phyllis Fox & A.L. Pugh, 1959.  Continuous
simulation including economic, industrial and social systems.  Versions:
"DYNAMO User's Manual", A.L. Pugh, MIT Press 1976.

DYSAC - Digital Simulated Analog Computer.  Sammet 1969, p.629.

DYSTAL - Package of embeddable subroutines used in other languages.  Sammet
1969, p.388.

E - An extension of C++ with database types and persistent objects.  Used
in the Exodus database system.  "Persistence in the E Language: Issues and
Implementation", J.E. Richardson et al, Soft Prac & Exp 19(12):1115-1150
(Dec 1989).

Eagle - dBASE-like dialect bundled with Emerald Bay, sold by Migent from
1986-1988, later renamed Vulcan when Wayne Ratliff reacquired the product.

Ease - General purpose parallel programming language, combining the process
constructs of CSP and the distributed data structures of Linda.
"Programming with Ease: Semiotic Definition of the Language", S.E. Zenith,

EASE II - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

EASIAC - Early system on Midac computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

EASY FOX - Early system on JOHNNIAC computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

EBASIC - Gordon Eubanks, now at Symantec.  Form of BASIC that led to

ECAP II - Electronic Circuit Analysis Program.  Simple language for
analyzing electrical networks.  "Introduction to Computer Analysis: ECAP
for Electronics Technicians and Engineers", H. Levin, P-H 1970.

ECL -  Extensible CL.  Wegbreit, ca 1970.  "The ECL Programming System", B.
Wegbreit, Proc FJCC 39:253-261, AFIPS (Fall 1971).  "ECL Programmer's
Manual", B. Wegbreit, TR 23-74, Harvard U (Dec 1974).

ECMA - Subset of ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.180.

ECP - Extended Concurrent Prolog.  Concurrent Prolog with OR parallelism,
set abstraction and meta-inference features.  "AND-OR Queuing in Extended
Concurrent Prolog", J. Tanaka et al, Proc Logic Prog Conf '85, LNCS 193,
Springer 1985. [???]

ECRC-Prolog - Evidently Prolog with coroutine extensions.  "ECRC-Prolog
User's Manual Version 1.0", K. Estenfeld, TR-LP-08 ECRC, Feb 1986.  (See

ECSP - An extension to CSP, supporting dynamic communication channels and
nested processes.  "Static Type Checking of Interprocess Communication in
ECSP", F. Baiardi et al, SIGPLAN Notices 19(6):290-299 (June 1984).

ECSS II - Extendable Computer System Simulator.  An extension of SIMSCRIPT
II.  "The ECSS II Language for Simulating Computer Systems", D.W. Kosy, R-
1895-GSA, Rand Corp.

ECSSL - Formerly APSE.  Equation-oriented specifications for continuous
simulations.  The compiler outputs HYTRAN, which must be run on an analog

Eden - Concurrent object-oriented language with both synchronous and
asynchronous message passing.  "The Eden System: A Technical Review", G.
Almes et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-11(1):43-59 (Jan 1985).


  1. Electronic Design Interchange Format.  Not a programming language, but
a format to simplify data transfer between CAD/CAE systems.  LISP-like
syntax.  "EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format Version 200", ANSI/EIA
Standard 548.

  2. VLSI design specification language.  "Designer's Guide to EDIF", E.
Marx et al, EDN 1987. [?]

Edinburgh Prolog - Prolog dialect which eventually developed into the
standard, as opposed to Marseille Prolog.  (The difference is largely
syntax.)  Clocksin & Mellish describe Edinburgh Prolog.  Version: C-Prolog.

Edison -

  1. (named for the American inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931))  Brinch
Hansen.  A simplified Pascal, with modules and concurrency (cobegin/coend).
"Edison - A Multiprocessor Language", P. Brinch Hansen, CS Dept, USC, Sep
1980.  "Programming a Personal Computer", Brinch Hansen, P-H 1977.

  2. Adds an OPS5-like system to C.  Translated by preprocessor into C.
"Edison, A Unix and C Friendly Rete Based Production System", B. Thirion,
SIGPLAN Notices 27(1):75-84 (Jan 1992).


  1. Experiment Description Language.  J.S. Jenkins.  "A Programmable
System for Acquisition and Reduction of Respiratory Physiological Data",
J.S. Jenkins et al, Ann Biomed Eng, 17:93-108 (1989).

  2. Event Description Language.  "EDL: A Basis for Distributed System
Debugging Tools", P.C. Bates et al, in Proc Hawaii Intl Conf on Sys Sci,
Jan 1982, pp.86-93.

EFL - Extended FORTRAN Language.  Preprocessor for FORTRAN to provide
structured programming much like C.  A descendant of RATFOR, written in C.
"An Informal Description of EFL", S.I. Feldman.

Eh - "A".  Software Portability Group, U Waterloo.  A typeless language
derived from (and similar to) B.  Provides guaranteed order of evaluation
for side effects in expressions.  Also character indexing operators.  "Eh
Reference Manual", R.S.C. Braga, RR CS-76-45, U Waterloo, Nov 1976.  (See

oriented language.  Classes with multiple and repeated inheritance,
deferred classes (like Smalltalk's abstract class), and clusters of
classes.  Objects can have both static and dynamic types.  The dynamic type
must be a descendant of the static (declared) type.  Dynamic binding
resolves clashes from the multiple inheritance.  Flattened forms of
classes, in which all of the inherited features are added at the same
level.  Generic classes parametrized by type.  Persistent objects, garbage
collection, exception handling, interface to routines written in other
languages.  Implemented as a preprocessor to C.  "Eiffel: the Language",
Bertrand Meyer, P-H 1990.  Interactive Software Eng, Goleta CA, (805) 685-
1006.  Version 2.3  (See Sather).

EL1 -  Extensible Language One.  B. Wegbreit, Harvard ca 1974.  An
extensible language, internally somewhat LISP-like, but fully typed with
records and pointers.  The external syntax is Algol-like and extensible,
supporting user-defined data structures, control structures and operations.
The parser is table-driven, with a modifiable set of productions.  Used as
the basis for the ECL operating system. "Studies in Extensible Programming
Languages", B. Wegbreit, Garland Pub 1980.

el(alpha) - Aims to be a high-level language that knows about real
hardware, for systems programming.  "Essential Language el(alpha) - A
Reduced Expression Set Language for Systems Programming", T. Watanabe et
al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(1):85-98.

ELF - Binary format used by System V Release 4 Unix.


  1. Early system on IBM 705, IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Small Common Lisp-like interpreter embedded in the Andrew mail system.

ELISP - Chuck Hedrick, Rutgers.  Implemented originally for DEC-20's, later
used as the LISP in EMACS.

Tech U Berlin.  A Scheme interpreter, easily extendable with new types and
primitive procedures.  First-class environments, dynamic-wind, fluid-let,
macros, dynamic loading of object files, autoloading, and a dump.

ELLA - Hardware description language.  "The Design Rationale of ELLA, A
Hardware Design and Description Language", J.D. Morison et al, in Computer
Hardware Description Languages and their Applications, C.J. Koomen et al
eds, N-H 1985.

Ellie - Object-oriented language with fine-grained parallelism for
distributed computing.  Based on BETA, Smalltalk, and others.  "Ellie

Notices 25(11):45-65 (Nov 1990).

ELLIS - EuLisp LInda System.  An object-oriented Linda system written for
EuLisp.  "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms to Describe Linda", P. Broadbery

Implementation, G. Wilson ed, U Edinburgh TR 91-13, 1991.


  1. English Language Programs.  Language for testing avionics equipment,
on Varian 620/i.  "Multiband Automatic test Equipment - A Computer
Controlled Checkout System", T. Kuroda et al, Proc SJCC, 38 (1971).

Semantically pure, fully lazy.  "Equational Logic as a Programming
Language", M.J. O'Donnell, MIT Press 1985.  Current version: 4.2.
ftp: for Sun and DEC.

ELSIE - A distributed version of ELLIS.  "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms

Like Systems and Their Implementation, G. Wilson ed, U Edinburgh TR 91-13,

EM-1 - Intermediate language used by the Amsterdam Compiler Kit.
info: A.S. Tanenbaum, Vrije Univ

EMA - Extended Mercury Autocode.  (See Autocode).

EMACS LISP - Richard Stallman.  Variant of LISP used by the EMACS editor.
(This is the "offical" name, based on the EMACS FAQ file.)

Emerald - U Washington, early 80's.  The successor of EPL[3].  An
object-oriented distributed programming language/environment.  Strongly
typed, uses signatures and prototypes rather than inheritance.
"Distribution and Abstract Types in Emerald", A. Black et al, IEEE Trans
Soft Eng SE-13(1):65-76 (Jan 1987).

EML - Extended ML.  A language for formally specifying SML programs.
"Formal Program Development in Extended ML for the Working Programmer", D.
Sannella, Proc 3rd BCS/FACS Workshop on Refinement", Springer 1990.

English - Database language used in the Pick OS.  "Exploring the Pick
Operating System", J.E. Sisk et al, Hayden 1986.

EOL-3 - Expression Oriented Language.  A low-level language for strings.
"EOL - A Symbol Manipulation Language", L. Lukaszewicz,  Computer J 10(1)
(May 1967).


  1. Extended Programming In LOGic.  PROLOG with several AND's having
different time constraints.  "Epilog: A Language for Extended Programming
in Logic", A. Porto in Implementations of Prolog, J.A. Campbell ed, Ellis
Horwood 1984.

  2. A data-driven PROLOG, with both AND and OR parallelism.  "EPILOG =
PROLOG + Data Flow", M.J. Wise, SIGPLAN Noices 17:80-86 (1982).


  1. Early PL/I.  McIlroy, Morris et al.  PL/I subset dialect, the first
running PL/I compiler.  Used by Bell Labs and MIT to write Multics, EPL had
extensions to handle the segment/offset nature of Multics pointers.  "EPL
Reference Manual", Project MAC, April 1966.  Sammet 1969, p.542.  (See

  2. Experimental Programming Language.  David May.  Influenced occam.
"EPL: An Experimental Language for Distributed Computing", D.C. May, in
Trends and Applications: Distributed Processing Proceedings, NBS, pp.69-71.

  3. Eden Programming Language.  U Washington.  Based on Concurrent Euclid
and used with the Eden distributed OS.  Influenced Emerald and Distributed
Smalltalk.  "EPL Programmer's Guide", A. Black et al, U Washington June

  4. Equational Programming Language. Szymanski, RPI.  Equational language
for parallel scientific applications.  "EPL - Parallel Programming with
Recurrent Equations", B. Szymanski in Parallel Functional Languages and
Compilers, B. Szymanski et, A-W 1991.

EPROL - "Software Prototyping, Formal Methods and VDM", S. Hekmatpour et
al, A-W 1988.

EPSIMONE - Concurrent simulation language derived from Simone.  "EPSIMONE
Manual", J. Beziin et al, Pub Int No 90, IRISA, Sept 1978.

"EqL: The Language and its Implementation", B. Jayaraman et al, IEEE Trans
Soft Eng SE-15(6):771-780 (June 1989).

EQLog - OBJ2 plus logic programming based on Horn logic with equality.
"EQLog: Equality, Types and Generic Modules for Logic Programming", J.
Goguen et al in Functional and Logic Programming, D. DeGroot et al eds,
pp.295-363, P-H 1986.

Eqn - Language for typesetting mathematics.  "A System for Typesetting
Mathematics", B.W. Kernighan and L.L. Cherry, CACM 18(3):151-157 (Mar

Equel - Embedded Quel.  INGRES, Inc.  Combines QUEL theories with C code.

Erlang - Armstrong, Williams & Virding, Ellemtel, Sweden.  Concurrent
functional programming language for real-time systems.  Explicit
concurrency, asynchronous message passing.  "Erlang - an Experimental
Telephony Programming Language", J.L. Armstrong et al, 13th Intl Switching
Symposium, Stockholm 1990.  Interpreter in SICStus Prolog, compilers in C
and in Erlang, for several Unix platforms.

ERFPI - Early system on LGP-30 computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

ES-1 - Early text editing interpreter.  Sammet 1969, p.684.

ESCAPE - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

ESI - Dialect of JOSS.  Sammet 1969, p.217.


  1. Extra Simple Pascal.  Subset of Pascal.

  2. Econometric Software Package.  Statistical analysis of time series.
"Econometric Software Package, User's Manual", J.P. Cooper, Graduate School
of Business, U Chicago.  Sammet 1978.

  3. Chikayama.  An object-oriented extension of KL0.  Backtracking-based
control, unification-based parameter passing, object-oriented calling.  An
object in ESP is an axiom set.  A class definition consists of nature
definitions (inheritance), slot definitions (class variables) and clause
definitions.  Multiple inheritance similar to Flavors.  Implemented for
ICOT's PSI Sequential Inference machine.  "Unique Features of ESP", T.
Chikayama, Proc Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, ICOT 1984.

  4. Early symbolic math system.  A. Rom, Celest Mech 3:331-345 (1971).

ESPOL - An ALGOL superset used to write the MCP (Master Control Program) on
Burroughs 6700.  Superseded by NEWP.  "The B6700 ESPOL Reference Manual",
Burroughs, 1970.

Estelle - Language for specification of computer network protocols.
Described in terms of communicating NFA's.  The language itself is Pascal-
like.  "The Formal Description Technique Estelle", M. Diaz et al eds, N-H

Esterel - Distributed language for synchronous interaction of real-time
systems with their environment.  Uses explicit timing requests.  Esterel
programs are compiled into finite automata.  "The ESTEREL Programming
Language and its Mathematical Semantics", G. Berry & L. Cosserat, TR 327,
INRIA, 1984.

ET - Bernd Gersdorf, U Bremen.  An integration of functional and logic

ET++ - Weinand, UBILAB Zurich.  A smalltalk-like system built on C++.

ETC - ExTendible Compiler.  FORTRAN-like, macro extendible.  "ETC - An
Extendible Macro-Based Compiler", B.N.{*filter*}man, Proc SJCC 38 (1971).

ETHER - Concurrent object-oriented language?

Euclid - (named for the Greek geometer, fl ca 300 BC.)  A Pascal descendant
for development of verifiable system software.  No goto, no side effects,
no global assignments, no functional arguments, no nested procedures, no
floats, no enumeration types.  Pointers are treated as indices of special
arrays called collections.  To prevent aliasing, Euclid forbids any overlap
in the list of actual parameters of a procedure.  Each procedure gives an
imports list, and the compiler determines the identifiers that are
implicitly imported.  Iterators.   "Report on the Programming Language
Euclid", B.W. Lampson et al, SIGPLAN Notices 12(2):1-79 (Feb 1977).

EULER - (named for the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783))
Revision of ALGOL.  A small predecessor of Pascal.  "EULER: A
Generalization of ALGOL and Its Formal Definition", N. Wirth, CACM 9(1)
(Jan 1966) and 9(2) (Feb 1966).

EuLisp - 1985-present.  LISP dialect intended to be a common European
standard, with influences from Common LISP, Le LISP, Scheme and T.  First-
class functions, classes and continuations, both static and dynamic scope,
modules, support for parallelism.  The class system (TELOS) incorporates
ideas from CLOS, ObjVLisp and Oaklisp.

ftp: (Free and Eventually Eulisp)

Eva - A toy ALGOL-like language used in "Formal Specification of
Programming Languages:  A Panoramic Primer", F. G. Pagan, P-H 1981.

EXAPT - EXtended APT.

EXEC - Early batch language for IBM VM/CMS systems.  SC19-6209 Virtual
Machine/ System Product CMS Command and Macro Reference (Appendix F. CMS
EXEC Control Statements)

EXEC2 - IBM, late 70's.  SC24-5219 Virtual Machine/System Product EXEC 2
Reference.  Superseded by REXX.

Sun, 19 Feb 1995 06:20:49 GMT  
 [ 1 post ] 

 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 9 of 9

2. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 8 of 9

3. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 7 of 9

4. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 6 of 9

5. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 5 of 9

6. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 4 of 9

7. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 2 of 9

8. The Language List Version 1.8 - Part 1 of 9

9. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

11. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)


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