The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 11 of 11) 
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 The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 11 of 11)

TELSIM - Busch, ca 1966.  Digital simulation.  Sammet 1969, p.627.

TempLog - A clausal subset of first-order temp{*filter*}logic, with discrete
time.  "Temp{*filter*}Logic in Programming", M. Abadi et al, INtl Symp Logic
Prog pp.4-16 (1987).

TEMPO - Simple syntax and semantics.  Designed for teaching semantic and
pragmatic aspects of programming languages.  "TEMPO: A Unified Treatment of
Binding Time and Parameter Passing Concepts in Programming Languages", N.D.
Jones et al, LNCS 66, Springer 1978.

Tempura - Language based on temp{*filter*}logic.  "Executing Temp{*filter*}Logic
Programs", B. Moszkowski, Camb U Press 1986.

Ten15 - A universal intermediate language, predecessor to TDF.
Polymorphic?  "Ten15: An Overview", P. Core et al, Royal Signals Radar
Establishment TR 3977 (Sept 1986).

TERMAC - Interactive matrix language.  "Users Guide to TERMAC", J.S. Miller
et al, MIT Dec 1968.

Terse - Language for decryption of hardware logic.  "Hardware Logic
Simulation by Compilation", C. Hansen, 25th ACM/IEEE Design Automation
Conf, 1988.

TeX - Donald Knuth, 1978.  Language for formatting and typesetting text,
especially mathematical formulas.  Macro extensible.  Version 3.0, March
  TeX-78 - The original version of TeX.
  TeX-82 - The version of TeX described in The TeXbook, Donald Knuth,
A-W 1984.
Well-known extensions to TeX:
  BibTeX - for bibliographies.  Distributed with LaTeX.
 {*filter*}- Lamport TEX.  Incorporates document styles.  "LaTeX, A Document

  MuTeX - for typesetting music.
  PiCTeX - for pictures.
  SliTeX - for slide preparation.  Distributed with LaTeX.

TFDL - "TFDL : A Task-level Dataflow Language", P.A. Suhler et al, J
Parallel and Distrib Comput 9:103-115 (1990).

TGS-II - Translator Generator System.  Contained TRANDIR.  Sammet 1969,

THEO - Frame language.  "Theo: A Framework for Self-Improving Systems",
Mitchell et al, in Architectures for Intelligence, K. VanLehn ed, Erlbaum,

Theseus - Based on Euclid, never implemented.  "Theseus - A Programming
Language for Relational Databases", J.E. Shopiro, ACM Trans Database Sys
4(4):493-517 (Mar 1979).

ThingLab - Simulation system written in Smalltalk-80.  Solves constraints
using value inference.  "The Programming Language Aspects of ThingLab, A
Constraint-Oriented Simulation Laboratory", A. Borning, ACM TOPLAS
3(4):353-387 (Oct 1981).  Version: ThingLab II.

Tinman - HOLWG, DoD, Jan 1976.  Third of the series of DoD requirements
that led to Ada.  (See Strawman, Woodenman, Ironman, Steelman).

tinman+ - Macro language for Apple ][?  Published in DDJ?

TINT - Interpreted version of JOVIAL.  Sammet 1969, p.528.

Tiny - Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.

TIP - Texas Instruments Pascal.


  1.  Teach IPL.  Interpretive IPL teaching system.  Sammet 1969, p.393.

  2.  Dialect of IGL.[?]

TK!Solver - Software Arts 1983.  Numerical constraint-oriented language.
"The TK!Solver Book", M. Konopasek et al, McGraw-Hill 1984.

TL0 - Thread Language Zero.  The instruction set of the TAM (Threaded
Abstract Machine), used to implement Id.  "Fine-grain Parallelism with
Minimal Hardware Support", David Culler et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(4):164-
175 (ASPLOS-IV Proc) (Apr 1991).

TL1 - Transaction Language 1.  Bellcore.  A subset of CCITT's MML with
simpler syntax.  Similar to USL[2].  For use in communications between
telephone operating systems and remote network test equipment.  OTGR, TR-
TSY-000439, section 12, Bellcore.  (1-800-521-CORE)

TL/I - An intermediate language for Turing machines.  "Examples of Formal
Semantics", D. Knuth in Symp on Semantics of Algorithmic Languages, E.
Engeler ed, LNM 188, Springer 1971, pp.212-235.

TMDL - Target-Machine Description Language.  Machine-description language
used in the Graham-Glanville code generator.  "Table-Driven Code
Generation", S.L. Graham, IEEE Computer 13(8):25-34 (Aug 1980).

TMG - TransMoGrifier.  Early language for writing recursive descent
compilers.  Macro'd from the IBM 1604 to the 709 to the 7094 to the GE635,
where it was used by McIlroy and Morris to write the EPL compiler for
Multics.  "TMG - A Syntax-Directed Compiler", R.M. McClure, Proc ACM 20th
Natl Conf (1965).  Sammet 1969, p.636.

TOK - Referred to in Ursula K. LeGuin's "Always Coming Home."  Seems to be
similar to the original BASIC.

Toronto Euclid - The standard dialect of Euclid, as compared to Ottawa

  1. Table Producing Language.  "The Bureau of Labor Statistics Table
Producing Language (TPL)", R.C. Mendelssohn, Proc ACM Annual Conf (1974).

  2. Fleming Nielson.  Concurrent, functional. [?]

  3. Terminal Programming Language.  Texas Inst, late 70's.  Used on the
TI-990/1 Small Business Computer and the TI-771 Intelligent Terminal.

TPS - Tree Pruning System.  "An Adaptive Tree Pruning System: A Language
for Programming Heuristic Tree Searches", E.W. Kozdrowicki, Proc ACM 23rd
Natl Conf 1968.

TPU - Text Processing Utility.  DEC.  Language for creation of text-
processing interfaces, used to implement DEC's Extensible VAX Editor (EVE).

TRAC - Text Reckoning And Compiling.  Calvin N. Mooers and Peter Deutsch

string manipulation.  Derived ideas from Macro SAP.  "TRAC: A Procedure-
Describing Language for the Reactive Typewriter", Calvin N. Mooers, CACM
9(3):215-219 (Mar 1966).  Rockford Research Inst, 1972.  Sammet 1969,
pp.448-454.  Macro Processors, A.J. Cole, Cambridge U Press.  Versions for
PDP-1, PDP-8, PDP-10, PDP-11 (See MINT, SAM76)

Trafola-H - A specification language for program transformations.
Functional, statically typed, polymorphic, with extended constructs for
pattern-matching.  "Trafola-H Reference Manual", R. Heckmann et al, U
Saarlandes, Saarbrucken 1991.

TRANDIR - TRANslation DIRector.  A language for syntax-directed compiling.
Sammet 1969, p.640.

TRANQUIL - 1966.  ALGOL-like language with sets and other extensions, for
the Illiac IV.  "TRANQUIL: A Language for an Array Processing Computer",
N.E. Abel et al, Proc SJCC 34 (1969).

TRANS - TRAffic Network Simulation Language.  "A Model for Traffic
Simulation and a Simulation Language for the General Transportation
Problem", Proc FJCC 37 (1970).

TRANS-USE - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

TRANSCODE - Early system on Ferut computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

TRANSIT - Subsystem of ICES.  Sammet 1969, p.616.

TREET - E.C. Haines, 1964.  An experimental variant of LISP1.5, implemented
on the STRETCH computer.  Basic structure was a trinary tree.  "The TREET
Time-Sharing System", H.A. Bayard et al, Proc 2nd Symp Symb and Alg Manip,
ACM (Mar 1971).  Sammet 1969, pp.457-461.

TREETRAN - fortran IV subroutine package for tree manipulation.

Trellis - (formerly named Owl).  DEC.  U Karlsruhe?  Object-oriented, with
static type-checking and encapsulation.  "Persistent and Shared Objects in
trellis/owl", P. O'Brien et al, Proc 1986 IEEE Workshop on Object-Oriented
Database Systems, IEEE, NY 1986.

TRIGMAN - Symbolic math, especially Celestial Mechanics.

language with numerical constraint-solving over the natural numbers.
Syntactically a blend of Prolog, LISP and Pascal.  Contains three types of
clauses: predicates (backtracking but no assignable variables), procedures
(if-then-else but no backtracking; assignable variables), and subroutines
(like procedures, but with input and system calls; callable only from top
level or from other subroutines).  "The Constraint Language Trilogy:

Logic Systems, 741 Blueridge Ave, North Vancouver BC, V7R 2J5.  Papers by
Voda, and BYTE review.[?]

Troff - Text formatting language/interpreter, a variant of Unix roff.  (See
groff, nroff).

TROLL - Array language for continuous simulation, econometric modeling,
statistical analysis.  "TROLL Reference Manual", D0062, Info Proc Services,
MIT (1973-76).

True BASIC - John Kemeny & Thomas E. Kurtz.  A compiled BASIC requiring no
line numbers.

TS - Typed Smalltalk.  Ralph Johnson, U Illinois

R.E. Johnson et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23(11) (Nov 1988).

Tsim - Time Simulator.  Stack-based simulation language.  ZOLA

TSL-1 - Task Sequencing Language.  Language for specifying sequences of
tasking events in Ada programs.  "Task Sequencing Language for Specifying
Distributed Ada Systems", D.C. Luckham et al in PARLE: Parallel
Architectures and Langs Europe, LNCS 259, Springer 1987, pp.444-463.

Tui - Functional.  "Tui Language Manual", B. Boutel, TR CSD-8-021, Victoria
U of Wellington, 1988.

Tuki - An intermediate code for functional languages.  "Another
Implementation Technique for Applicative Languages", H. Glaser et al,
ESOP86, LNCS 213, Springer 1986.

TUPLE - Toyohashi University Parallel Lisp Environment.  A parallel Lisp
based on KCL.  "Memory Management and Garbage Collection of an Extended
Common Lisp System for Massively Parallel SIMD Architecture", Taiichi
Yuasa, in Memory Management, IWMM92, Springer 1992, 490-507.

Tuple Space Smalltalk - "Using Tuple Space Communication in Distributed
Object-Oriented Languages", S. Matsuoka et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23(11):276-
284 (Nov 1988).

Turbo Pascal - Borland Intl's Pascal.  Perhaps the first integrated
development environment for MS-DOS.
Versions 1.0-3.0: standard Pascal with a few extensions
Versions 4.0 (1987) and 5.0: separate compilation
Version 5.5: object-oriented facilities
Version 6.0: Turbo Vision OOP library

Turbo Prolog - 1986.  A Prolog-like language with strong typing and user-
defined domains.  Programs are arranged in sections: DOMAINS, CLAUSES,
PREDICATES, DATABASE and GOAL.  Currently known as PDC Prolog, and
distributed by Prolog Development Center, Atlanta (404)873-1366

Euclid, an airtight super-Pascal.  Used mainly for teaching programming at
both high school and university level.  "Turing Language Report", R.C. Holt
& J.R. Cordy, Report CSRI-153, CSRI, U Toronto, Dec 1983.  "The Turing
Programming Language", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, CACM 31(12) (Dec 1988).
Available from Holt Software Assocs, Toronto.  Versions for Sun, MS-DOS,
Mac, etc.

Turing Plus - Systems programming language, a concurrent descendant of
Turing.  "The Turing Plus Report", R.C. Holt & J.R. Cordy, CSRI, U Toronto,
Feb 1987.  Available from Holt Software Assocs, Toronto

Turingol - D. Knuth.  High-level language for programming Turing machines?
Subject of the first construction of a nontrivial attribute grammar.
"Semantics of Context-Free Languages", D. Knuth, Math Sys Thy
2:127-145 (1975).

TUTOR - Scripting language on PLATO systems from CDC.  "The TUTOR
Language", Bruce Sherwood, Control Data, 1977.

Twentel - Functional.  "The TWENTEL System (Version 1).", H. Kroeze, CS
Dept TR, U Twente, 1986.

TWIG - Tree-Walking Instruction Generator.  A code-generator language.
"Twig Language Manual", S.W.K. Tijang, CS TR 120, Bell Labs, 1986.  A


TXL - Tree Transformation Language.  J.R. Cordy et al, Queens U, Canada,
1988.  A hybrid functional/rule-based language for implementing source-to-
source translation and program transformation tasks.  "TXL: A Rapid
Prototyping System for Programming Language Dialects", J.R. Cordy et al,
Comp Langs 16(1) (Jan 1991).  Specification and Automatic Prototype
Implementation of Polymorphic Objects in Turing Using the TXL Dialect
Processor", J.R. Cordy & E.M. Promislow, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on Comp Lang
ICCL'90 (Mar 1990).
ftp:*  Version 7.4, source in ANSI C

TYPOL - A specialized logic programming language.  "TYPOL: A Formalism to
Implement Natural Semantics", T. Despeyroux, RR 94, INRIA, 1988.

UAN - User Action Notation.  VPI.  A notation for representation of
graphical user interfaces, e.g. mice and icons, H. Hartson et al, ACM Trans
on Info Sys, July 1990.

for symbolic math and number theory.  Includes bignums, fractions, complex
numbers and polynomials, integer factorization.  Version for MS-DOS,
written in assembly language.  Reviewed by W.D. Neumann, Notices of AMS
(Mar 1991).

uC++ - Micro-C++.  U Waterloo.  A concurrent extension of C++ with
coroutines and mutual exclusion.  Soft Prac & Exp (Feb 1992).  Version 3.7
for Unix using GCC.

UCSD Pascal - see Pascal-P.

U-Code - Universal Pascal Code.  Intermediate language, a generalization of
P-code for easier optimization.  Developed originally for the Los Alamos
Cray-1 and the Lawrence Livermore S-1.  A refined version currently used by
MIPS compilers is descended from one at Stanford U.  "Machine Independent
Pascal Code Optimization", D.R. Perkins et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(8): 201-
201 (1979).  "A Transporter's Guide to the Stanford U-Code Compiler
System", P. Nye et al, TR CSL Stanford U, June 1983.  (See HPcode).

UHELP - Linear programming.  "UHELP User's Manual", D. Singh, Indus Eng
Dept, U Houston (Oct 1969).

UGLIAC - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

UHELP - Mathematical language, listed [?] 1976.

UIL - User Interface Language?  Distributed with Motif.

ULP - Small structured language for use in microprocessors.  "User's Guide
to the ULP Language for the PDP-11", CS TR 536, U Maryland (May 1977).

uML - Micro ML.  An interpreter for a subset of SML that runs on MS-DOS.

UNCOL -  UNiversal Computer Oriented Language.  A universal intermediate
language, discussed but never implemented.  "A First Version of UNCOL",
T.B. Steel, Proc JCC 19:371-378 (Winter 1961).  Sammet 1969, p.708.

UNICODE - Pre-FORTRAN on the IBM 1103, similar to MATH-MATIC.  Sammet 1969,

UNIFORM - An intermediate language developed for reverse engineering both
COBOL and FORTRAN.  "The REDO Compendium", H. van Zuylen ed, Wiley 1993.

UNIQUE - A portable job control language, used.  "The UNIQUE Command
Language - Portable Job Control", I.A. Newman, Proc DATAFAIR 73, 1973,

UNISAP - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

UNITY - A high-level parallel language.  "Parallel Program Design", K.M.
Chandry and Misra, A-W 1988.
ftp:  a translator
into MPL.

knowledge representation language.  An extension of Prolog written in
Common Lisp, with Lisp-like syntax.  Extends Prolog with a multiple world
mechanism, plus term descriptions to provide functional programming.

USE - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May


  1. Query language, close to natural English.

  2. User System Language.  Bellcore, "Operations Technology Generic
Requirements: User System Interface", TR-825.

USSA - B. Burshteyn, Pyramid, 1992.  Object-oriented state language.

utility-coder - Data manipulation and report generation.  "User's Manual
for utility-coder", Cambridge Computer Assoc (Jul 1977).

UTOPIST - E. Tyugu, Acad Sci Estonia, Tallinn, early 1980's.  Specification
language for attribute grammars.  "Synthesis of a Semantic Processor from
an Attribute Grammar", Prog and Comp Soft, 9(1):29-39 (Jan 1983).

V - Wide-spectrum language used in the knowledge-based environment CHI.
"Research on Knowledge-Based Software Environments at Kestrel Inst", D.R.
Smith et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-11(11):1278-1295 (1985).


  1. Value-oriented Algorithmic Language.  J.B. Dennis, MIT 1979.  Single
assignment language, designed for MIT dataflow machine.  Based on CLU, has
iteration and error handling, lacking in recursion and I/O.  "A Value-
Oriented Algorithmic Language", W.B. Ackermann et al, MIT LCS TR-218, June
1979.  "The VAL Language: Description and Analysis", J.R. McGraw, TOPLAS
4(1):44-82 (Jan 1982).

  2. Variable Assembly Language.  Unimation.  Language for industrial
robots.  Version: VAL II - "VAL II: A New Robot Control System for
Automatic Manufacturing", B.E. Shimano et al, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on
Robotics 1984, pp.278-292.

  3. VHDL Annotation Language.  Stanford.

Valid - Dataflow language.  "A List-Processing-Oriented Data Flow Machine
Architecture", Makoto Amamiya et al, AFIPS NCC, June 1982, pp.143-151.


  1. Intermediate language used in the compilation of NESL.
"Implementation of a Portable Nested Data-Parallel Language", Guy Blelloch
et al, in Fourth ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Princ and Practice of Parallel
Programming, ACM, 1993.

VDM++ - Object-oriented extension of VDM-SL.  "Object-Oriented
Specification in VDM++", in Object Oriented Specification Case Studies, K.
Lano et al eds, P-H 1993.

VDM-SL - Vienna Development Method Specification Language.  (Also known as
Meta-IV.)  Model-oriented specification language, upon which the Vienna
Development Method is based.  "The Vienna Development Method: The Meta-
Language", D. Bjorner et al eds, LNCS 61, Springer 1978.  "The VDM-SL
Reference Guide", J. Dawes, Pitman 1991.  "Systematic Software Development
Using VDM", C.B. Jones, P-H 1989.  ISO draft Apr 1993.  Version: BSI/VDM.

Vector C - CMU?  Variant of C similar to ACTUS.

VECTRAN - FORTRAN with array extensions.  "The VECTRAN Language: An
Experimental Language for Vector/Matrix Array Processing, Report G320-
3334, IBM (Aug 1975).

Verdi - (named for the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901))
Provable systems language.  Descendant of Ottawa Euclid.

VEL - See LISP70.

Verilog - Cadence Design Systems.  A hardware description language.  "The
Verilog Hardware Description Language", Donald E. Thomas & Philip Moorby,
Kluwer 1991.

VGQF - Query language. [?]

VHDL - VHSIC Hardware Description Language.  (VHSIC = Very High Speed
Integrated Circuit)  A large language with Ada-like syntax.  The DoD
standard for hardware description.  "VHSIC Hardware Description Language",
M.R. Shahdad et al, IEEE Computer 18(2):94-103 (Feb 1985).

Vienna Definition Language - IBM Vienna Labs.  A language for formal
definition via operational semantics.  Used to specify the semantics of
PL/I.  "The Vienna Definition Language", P. Wegner, ACM Comp Surveys
4(1):5-63 (Mar 1972).

parallel extension of Fortran 77 for distributed memory multiprocessors.
"Programming In Vienna Fortran", B. Chapman et al, Scientific Programming
1(1):31-50 (Aug 1992).

Views - A Smalltalk extension for computer algebra.  "An Object Oriented
Approach to Algebra System Design", K. Abdali et al, in Symp Symb Alg
Manip, ACM 1986, pp.24-30.

VIF - VHDL Interface Format.  Intermediate language used by the Vantage
VHDL compiler.  "A VHDL Compiler Based on Attribute Grammar Methodology",
R. Farrow et al, SIGPLAN NOtices 24(7):120-130 (Jul 1989).

Viron - "Five Paradigm Shifts in Programming Language Design and Their
Realization in Viron, a Dataflow Programming Environment", V. Pratt, 10th
POPL, ACM 1983, pp.1-9.

VITAL - Semantics language using FSL.  Mondshein, 1967.  Sammet 1969,

VIVID - Numerical constraint-oriented language.  "VIVID: The Kernel of a
Knowledge Representation Environment Based on the Constraints Paradigm of
Computation", J. Maleki, Proc 20th Annual Hawaii Intl Conf on System
Sciences (Jan 1987) pp.591-597.

viz - Visual language for specification and programming.  "viz: A Visual
Language Based on Functions", C.M. Holt, 1990 IEEE Workshop on Visual
Langs, Oct 1990, pp.221-226.

fast interpreter to a portable virtual machine.  Introduced the
"chronology", a dynamic enviroment for implementing interrupts.  Led to
Le_Lisp.  (See ObjVlisp).  "Contribution a la Definition Interpretive et a
l'Implementation des Lambda-Langages", P. Greussay, These d'Etat, U Paris
VI, Nov 1977.

VML - VODAK Model Language.  Language for extensible object-oriented
database.  "Object-Oriented Modeling for Hypermedia Systems Using the
Object-Oriented VODAK Model Language (VML)" Wolfgang Klas et al, in Object-
Oriented Database Management Systems, NATO ASI Series, Springer 1993.

VPL - Dataflow language for interactive image processing.  "VPL: An Active,
Declarative Visual Programming System, D. Lau-Kee et al, 1991 IEEE Workshop
on Vis Langs, Oct 1991, pp.40-46.

VSP - Very Simple Prolog+.  [?]


  1. Wayne Ratliff ca. 1980.  CP/M port of JPLDIS which evolved into dBASE

  2. The dBASE-like interpreter and compiler sold by RSPI with their
Emerald Bay product. [same as 1?]

  3. Early string manipulation language.  "VULCAN - A String Handling
Language with Dynamic Storage Control", E.P. Storm et al, Proc FJCC 37,
AFIPS (Fall 1970).

  4. Kahn et al, Xerox PARC.  Concurrent object orientation and logic
programming.  An object-oriented preprocessor for FCP.  "Vulcan: Logical
Concurrent Objects", K. Kahn et al in Research Directions in Object-
Oriented Programming, A.B. Shriver et al eds, MIT Press 1987.

WAFL - WArwick Functional Language.  Warwick U, England.  LISP-like.

WAM - Intermediate language for compiled Prolog, used by the Warren
Abstract Machine.  "An Abstract Prolog Instruction Set", D.H.D. Warren, TR
309, SRI 1983.


WATFIV - WATerloo Fortran IV.  U Waterloo, Canada.  Student-friendly
variant of FORTRAN IV.

WATFOR - WATerloo FORtran.  U Waterloo, Canada.  Student-friendly variant
of FORTRAN.  "WATFOR - The University of Waterloo FORTRAN IV Compiler",
P.W. Shantz et al, CACM 10(1):41-44 (Jan 1967).

WAVE - Robotics language.  "WAVE: A Model-Based Language for Manipulator
Control", R.P. Paul, Ind Robot 4(1):10-17 (1979).

WEB - Knuth's self-documenting brand of programming, with algorithms and
documentation intermixed in one file.  They can be separated using Weave
and Tangle.  Versions exist for Pascal, C etc.  Spiderweb can be used to
create versions for other languages (ftp  "Literate
Programming", D.E. Knuth, Computer J 27(2):97-111 (May 1984).  

WFL - Work Flow Language.  Burroughs, ca 1973.  A job control language for
the B6700/B7700 under MCP.  WFL was a compiled block-structured language
similar to ALGOL-60, with subroutines and nested begin-end's.  "Work Flow
Management User's Guide", Burroughs Manual 5000714 (1973).  "Burroughs
B6700/B7700 Work Flow Language", R.M. Cowan in Command Languages, C. Unger
ed, N-H 1975.

Wisp - "An Experiment with a Self-Compiling Compiler for a Simple List-
Processing Language", M.V. Wilkes, Ann Rev Automatic Programming 4:1-48

Woodenman - HOLWG, DoD, 1975.  Second of the series of DoD requirements
that led to Ada.  "Woodenman Set of Criteria and Needed Characteristics for
a Common DoD High Order Programming Language", David A. Fisher, Inst for
Def {*filter*}Working Paper, Aug 1975.  (See Strawman, Tinman, Ironman,

WOOL - Window Object Oriented Language.  Colas Nahaboo

to be the fastest interpreted language in C with run-time types.  Version 1
used by the GWM window manager.  Version 2 has an object system.

WPL+ - Word-oriented language internal to PRODOS Applewriter 2.1.
Available on GEnie.

implementation of POP for the PDP-10 that used cages for different data
types.  Introduced processes, properties, and some typed identifiers.

WRITEACOURSE - CAI language, for IBM 360.  "WRITEACOURSE: An Educational
Programming Language", E. Hunt et al, Proc FJCC 33(2) (1968).

WSFN - Which Stands For Nothing.  Atari 1983.  Beginner's language with
emphasis on graphics, for Atari home computers.  Version: Advanced WSFN.

WSL - Waterloo Systems Language.  A C-like systems programming language.
"Waterloo Systems Language:  Tutorial and Language Reference", F.D.
Boswell, WATFAC Publications Ltd, Waterloo, Canada.  ISBN 0-919884-00-8.

X-1 - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Xbase - Generic term for the dBASE family of languages.  Coined in response
to threatened litigation over use of the copyrighted trademark "dBASE."

XC - Declarative extension of C++.  "XC - A Language for Embedded Rule
Based Systems", E. Nuutila et al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(9):23-32 (Sep 1987).

XDL - An object-oriented extension to CCITT's SDL[2].  "XDL: An Object-
Oriented Extension to SDL", S.J. Ochuodho et al in [?]

SML and Russell, intended for computer algebra.  "A Polymorphic Functional
language Applied to Symbolic Computation", S. Dalmas, Proc Intl Symp Symb
Alg Comp, Berkeley 1992.

Xi - VLSI design language.  "The Circuit Design Language Xi", S.I. Feldman,
unpublished memo, Bell Labs, 1982.  Mentioned in Computational Aspects of
VLSI, J.D. Ullman, CS Press 1984.

with object-oriented extensions, portable source in C.  BYTE article.

Common Lisp.

XNF - Hardware description language?

XPC - eXplicitly Parallel C.  Dialect of Parallel C which is mode
independent, i.e. efficiently compilable to both SIMD and MIMD
architectures.  "Toward Semantic Self-Consistency in Explicitly Parallel
Languages," M.J. Phillip & H.G. Dietz, Proc 4th Intl Conf on
Supercomputing, Santa Clara, CA, May 1989, v.1, pp.398-407.  Research
implementations only.

XPL - Stanford, 1967-69.  Small dialect of PL/I used for compiler writing.
One-dimensional arrays.  I/O achieved with character pseudo-variable INPUT
and OUTPUT, e.g. OUTPUT = 'This is a line';  Inline machine code.
"Programmers are given all the rope they ask for.  Novices tend to hang
themselves fairly frequently."  Implemented on IBM 360, Univac 1100, ICL
System 4, CDC6000 and {*filter*} series, XDS Sigma-5 and Sigma-7, and DEC PDP-
10.  "A Compiler Generator," W.M. McKeeman et al, P-H 1970.  Also JCC,
AFIPS 1968.

XPOP - Extensible macro assembly language with user-redefinable grammar,
for use with FAP.  "XPOP: A Meta-language Without Metaphysics", M.I.
Halpern, Proc FJCC 25:57-68, AFIPS (Fall 1964).

XScheme - David Betz.  Scheme with object-oriented extensions.  Source in
C.  Versions for PC, Macintosh, Atari, Amiga.
     comp.sources.amiga/volume90, version 0.28 for Amiga

XTRAN - FORTRAN-like, interactive. [?]

Y - General purpose language syntactically like RATFOR, semantically like
C.  Lacks structures and pointers.  Used as a source language for the
Davidson/Fraser peephole optimizer.  "The Y Programming Language", D.R.
Hanson, SIGPLAN Notices 16(2):59-68 (Feb 1981).

Yaa - Yet Another Assembler - Macro assembler for GCOS 8 and Mark III on
Bull DPS-8 machines.  Available from Bull as part of U Waterloo Tools

Yacc - Yet Another Compiler Compiler.  Language used by the Yacc LALR
parser generator.  "YACC - Yet Another Compiler Compiler", S.C. Johnson, CS
TR 32, Bell Labs (Jul 1975).
 ayacc - UC Irvine.  written in Ada, produces Ada output
 Bison - from GNU
 Bison++ - produces C++ output.
 perl-byacc - produces perl output
 SASL-Yacc - "Yacc in SASL - An Exercise in Functional Programming", Simon
Peyton-Jones, Software Prac & Exp 15:807-820 (1985).  Mentions also a BCPL
 Yacc++ - 1990.  An object-oriented rewrite of yacc, supports regular exp-
ressions, produces an LR(1) parser.  "YACC Meets C++", S.C. Johnson, USENIX
Spring '88 Conf.  Chris Clark, Compiler Resources Inc,

 MLYACC - Implementation and output in SML/NJ

YAPS - Yet Another Production System?  College Park Software.  Commercial
production rule language, simpler than OPS5.  Allows knowledge bases to be
attached to instances of CLOS objects.

YASOS - Yet Another Scheme Object System.

Yay - Yet Another Yacc - An extension of Yacc with LALR(2) parsing.
Available from Bull as part of U Waterloo Tools package (maintained by

Yellow - SRI.  A language proposed to meet the Ironman requirements which
led to Ada. "On the YELLOW Language Submitted to the DoD", E.W. Dijkstra,
SIGPLAN Notices 13(10):22-26 (Oct 1978).

Yerk - (named for Yerkes Observatory)  A public domain reincarnation of

YLISP - Hewlett-Packard.  A variant of Xlisp for the HP-95LX palmtop.*

Z -

  1. ("zed")  Programming Research Group, Oxford U, ca 1980.  A
specification language based on axiomatic set theory and first order
predicate logic.  Written using many non-ASCII symbols.  Used in the IBM
CICS project?  "Understanding Z", J.M. Spivey, Cambridge U Press 1988.

  2. A stack-based, complex arithmetic simulation language.  ZOLA

Z++ - Object-oriented extension of Z.  "Z++, an Object-Oriented Extension
to Z", Lano, Z User Workshop, Oxford 1990, Springer Workshops in Computing,
1991, pp.151-172.

ZAP - Language for expressing transformational developments.  "A System for
Assisting Program Transformation", M.S. Feather, ACM TOPLAS 4(1):1-20 (Jan

Zed - 1978.  Software Portability Group, U Waterloo.  Eh, with types added.
Similar to C.  Implementation language for the Thoth realtime operating
system.  Added a few simple types for greater efficiency on byte-addressed
machines.  String constants in case statements.  Enforces the naming
convention: MANIFESTS, Externals and locals.  "Porting the Zed Compiler",
G.B. Bonkowski et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(8):92-97 (Aug 1979).

ZENO - U Rochester 1978.  Euclid with asynchronous message-passing.
"Preliminary ZENO Language Description", J.E. Ball et al, SIGPLAN Notices
14(9):17-34 (Sep 1979).

ZERO - Object oriented extension of Z.  "Object Orientation in Z", S.
Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZEST - Object oriented extension of Z.  "Object Orientation in Z", S.
Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZetaLisp - Maclisp dialect used on the LISP Machine.  The many extensions
to Maclisp include vectors, closures, flavors, stack groups, locatives and
invisible pointers.  "LISP Machine Manual", D. Weinreb and D. Moon, MIT AI
Lab, 1981.

ZIL - Zork Implementation Language.  Language used by Infocom's Interactive
Fiction adventure games.  Interpreted by the zmachine, for Unix and Amiga.

Zipcode - [?] Parallel language at Lawrence Livermore?

zsh - Sh with list processing and database enhancements.

ZOPL - Geac. [?] A low-level Pascal?

ZUG - Geac. [?] A low-level Awk?

Zuse - (named for Konrad Zuse, the designer of the first modern programming

1991.  A descendant of Ada, Modula-2, Mesa and Oberon-1 supporting several
levels of information hiding.  The Zuse type system includes fully hidden
types (similar to Modula-2 opaque types but without any implementation
restriction), semi-open pointer types (same as Modula-2 opaque types),
extensible record types (similar to Oberon-1 public projection types but
without the compiler hint), enumeration types, extensible enumeration
types, and extensible subrange types.  A type can also be protected by
specifying the operations that particular modules may perform (similar to
C++ friend classes and Ada private types).  Zuse also includes hidden and
extensible constants and hidden inline procedures.  In order to support the
higher levels of information hiding the implementation employs partial
intermediate code linking.  Version for Sun-3.


Selected Works on Computer Language History and Design

AFIPS (American Federation of Information Processing Societies), SJCC
(Spring Joint Computer Conference) and FJCC (Fall Joint Computer
Conference), replaced after 1972 by the NCC (National Computer Conference).
TK7885 .A1 J6

Andrews, G.R. and F.B. Schneider, "Concepts and Notations for Concurrent
Programming", ACM Comp Surveys 15(1):1-43 (Mar 1983).

Bal, H.E., "Programming Languages for Distributed Systems", ACM Comp
Surveys 21(3):261-322 (Sep 1989).

Blume, Christian, "Programming Languages for Industrial Robots", Springer

Bobrow, D.G. & Raphael, "New Programming Languages for Artificial
Intelligence Research", ACM Comp Surveys 6:155 (Nov 1974).

Computer Languages  QA 76.7 .C647  ISSN 0096-0551

Conference Record of the 19XX ACM Symposium on Lisp and Functional
Programming, QA 76.73 .L23 A26

Horowitz, Ellis, "Programming Languages, A Grand Tour", 3rd ed, Springer
1987.  QA76.7 .P78

Hudak, Paul, "Conception, Evolution and Application of Functional
Programming Languages", ACM Comp Surveys 21(3):359-411 (Sep 1989).

IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, QA76 .I33x

POPL - Conference Record of the [Nth] Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of
Programming Languages.  QA 76.7 .A25a

and Fundamentals",  P-H 1969.  QA76.5 .S213.  The definitive work on early
computer language development.

Sammet, Jean E., "Programming Languages: History and Future", CACM
15(7):601-610 (Jul 1972).

Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages"
        Computers & Automation 16(6):80-82 (June 1967)
        Computers & Automation 17(6):120-123 (June 1968)
        Computers & Automation 18(7):153-158 (June 1969)
        Computers & Automation 19(6B):6-11 (Nov 30, 1970)
        Computers & Automation 20(6B):6-13 (June 30, 1971)
        Computers & Automation 21(6B) (Aug 30, 1972)
        Computing Reviews 15(4): 147-160 (April 1974)
        CACM 19(12):655-669 (Dec 1976)
        SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):56 (Nov 1978).

Shapiro, E., "The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages", ACM
Comp Surveys, 21(3):413-510 (Sep 1989).

ACM SIGPLAN Notices, QA76.7 .A13

Software: Practice and Experience, QA 76.5 .S653

ACM TOPLAS (Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems) QA76.7 .A16

W. van der Poel, Machine Oriented Higher Level Languages, N-H 1974.

Wexelblat, R.L. ed, "Proceedings: ACM SIGPLAN History of Programming
Languages Conference"  (Los Angeles, July 1978).  758 pp.  Academic Press
1981.  An entertaining account of the history of roughly 15 major
programming languages.  Jean Sammet co-organized the conference.  ACM No
548780.  ACM Order Dept: (800)342-6626.  QA76.7 .H56


A Chronology of Influential Computer Languages

Konrad Zuse in Nazi Germany may have developed the first real computer
programming language, "Plankalkul" ca. 1945.  This is mentioned in the 1978
ACM History of Programming Languages FORTRAN session.

According to Sammet, over 200 programming languages were developed between
1952 and 1972, but she considered only about 13 of them to be significant.

1957    FORTRAN
1958    ALGOL
1960    LISP
1960    COBOL
1962    APL
1962    SIMULA
1964    BASIC
1964    PL/I
1966    ISWIM
1970    Prolog
1972    C
1975    Pascal
1975    Scheme
1977    OPS5
1978    CSP
1978    FP
1980    dBASE II
1983    Smalltalk-80
1983    Ada
1983    Parlog
1984    Standard ML
1986    C++
1986    CLP(R)
1986    Eiffel
1988    CLOS
1988    Mathematica
1988    Oberon
1990    Haskell
--Bill Kinnersley

226 Transfer complete.

Sat, 06 Jul 1996 10:44:55 GMT  
 [ 1 post ] 

 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 10 of 11)

2. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 9 of 11)

3. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 6 of 11)

4. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 1 of 11)

5. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 4 of 11)

6. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 3 of 11)

7. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 2 of 11)

8. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 11 of 11)

9. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

11. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)


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