The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 11 of 11) 
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 The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 11 of 11)*

UHELP - Linear programming.  "UHELP User's Manual", D. Singh, Indus Eng
Dept, U Houston (Oct 1969).

UGLIAC - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

UHELP - Mathematical language, listed [?] 1976.

UIL - User Interface Language?  Distributed with Motif.

ULP - Small structured language for use in microprocessors.  "User's Guide
to the ULP Language for the PDP-11", CS TR 536, U Maryland (May 1977).

uML - Micro ML.  An interpreter for a subset of SML that runs on MS-DOS.

UNCOL -  UNiversal Computer Oriented Language.  A universal intermediate
language, discussed but never implemented.  "A First Version of UNCOL",
T.B. Steel, Proc JCC 19:371-378 (Winter 1961).  Sammet 1969, p.708.

UNICODE - Pre-fortran on the IBM 1103, similar to MATH-MATIC.  Sammet 1969,

UNIFORM - An intermediate language developed for reverse engineering both
COBOL and FORTRAN.  "The REDO Compendium", H. van Zuylen ed, Wiley 1993.

UNIQUE - A portable job control language, used.  "The UNIQUE Command
Language - Portable Job Control", I.A. Newman, Proc DATAFAIR 73, 1973,

UNISAP - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

UNITY - A high-level parallel language.  "Parallel Program Design", K.M.
Chandry and Misra, A-W 1988.  a translator
into MPL.

knowledge representation language.  An extension of Prolog written in
Common Lisp, with Lisp-like syntax.  Extends Prolog with a multiple world
mechanism, plus term descriptions to provide functional programming.

USE - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May


  1. Query language, close to natural English.

  2. User System Language.  Bellcore, "Operations Technology Generic
Requirements: User System Interface", TR-825.

USSA - B. Burshteyn, Pyramid, 1992.  Object-oriented state language.

utility-coder - Data manipulation and report generation.  "User's Manual
for utility-coder", Cambridge Computer Assoc (Jul 1977).

UTOPIST - E. Tyugu, Acad Sci Estonia, Tallinn, early 1980's.  Specification
language for attribute grammars.  "Synthesis of a Semantic Processor from
an Attribute Grammar", Prog and Comp Soft, 9(1):29-39 (Jan 1983).

V - Wide-spectrum language used in the knowledge-based environment CHI.
"Research on Knowledge-Based Software Environments at Kestrel Inst", D.R.
Smith et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-11(11):1278-1295 (1985).


  1. Value-oriented Algorithmic Language.  J.B. Dennis, MIT 1979.  Single
assignment language, designed for MIT dataflow machine.  Based on CLU, has
iteration and error handling, lacking in recursion and I/O.  "A Value-
Oriented Algorithmic Language", W.B. Ackermann et al, MIT LCS TR-218, June
1979.  "The VAL Language: Description and Analysis", J.R. McGraw, TOPLAS
4(1):44-82 (Jan 1982).

  2. Variable Assembly Language.  Unimation.  Language for industrial
robots.  Version: VAL II - "VAL II: A New Robot Control System for
Automatic Manufacturing", B.E. Shimano et al, Proc IEEE Intl Conf on
Robotics 1984, pp.278-292.

  3. VHDL Annotation Language.  Stanford.

Valid - Dataflow language.  "A List-Processing-Oriented Data Flow Machine
Architecture", Makoto Amamiya et al, AFIPS NCC, June 1982, pp.143-151.


  1. Intermediate language used in the compilation of NESL.
"Implementation of a Portable Nested Data-Parallel Language", Guy Blelloch
et al, in Fourth ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Princ and Practice of Parallel
Programming, ACM, 1993.

VDM++ - Object-oriented extension of VDM-SL.  "Object-Oriented
Specification in VDM++", in Object Oriented Specification Case Studies, K.
Lano et al eds, P-H 1993.

VDM-SL - Vienna Development Method Specification Language.  (Also known as
Meta-IV.)  Model-oriented specification language, upon which the Vienna
Development Method is based.  "The Vienna Development Method: The Meta-
Language", D. Bjorner et al eds, LNCS 61, Springer 1978.  "The VDM-SL
Reference Guide", J. Dawes, Pitman 1991.  "Systematic Software Development
Using VDM", C.B. Jones, P-H 1989.  ISO draft Apr 1993.  Version: BSI/VDM.

Vector C - CMU?  Variant of C similar to ACTUS.

VECTRAN - FORTRAN with array extensions.  "The VECTRAN Language: An
Experimental Language for Vector/Matrix Array Processing, Report G320-
3334, IBM (Aug 1975).

Verdi - (named for the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901))
Provable systems language.  Descendant of Ottawa Euclid.

VEL - See LISP70.

Verilog - Phil Moorby, Gateway Design Information, 1983.  A hardware
description language.  "The Verilog Hardware Description Language", Donald
E. Thomas & Philip Moorby, Kluwer 1991.  Available from Cadence Design
Systems, (408)943-1234,

VGQF - Query language. [?]

VHDL - VHSIC Hardware Description Language.  (VHSIC = Very High Speed
Integrated Circuit)  A large language with Ada-like syntax.  The DoD
standard for hardware description.  "VHSIC Hardware Description Language",
M.R. Shahdad et al, IEEE Computer 18(2):94-103 (Feb 1985).  IEEE Std 1076
(1987).  Version: VHDL92.

Vienna Definition Language - IBM Vienna Labs.  A language for formal
definition via operational semantics.  Used to specify the semantics of
PL/I.  "The Vienna Definition Language", P. Wegner, ACM Comp Surveys
4(1):5-63 (Mar 1972).

parallel extension of Fortran 77 for distributed memory multiprocessors.
"Programming In Vienna Fortran", B. Chapman et al, Scientific Programming
1(1):31-50 (Aug 1992).

Views - A Smalltalk extension for computer algebra.  "An Object Oriented
Approach to Algebra System Design", K. Abdali et al, in Symp Symb Alg
Manip, ACM 1986, pp.24-30.

VIF - VHDL Interface Format.  Intermediate language used by the Vantage
VHDL compiler.  "A VHDL Compiler Based on Attribute Grammar Methodology",
R. Farrow et al, SIGPLAN NOtices 24(7):120-130 (Jul 1989).

Viron - "Five Paradigm Shifts in Programming Language Design and Their
Realization in Viron, a Dataflow Programming Environment", V. Pratt, 10th
POPL, ACM 1983, pp.1-9.

VITAL - Semantics language using FSL.  Mondshein, 1967.  Sammet 1969,

VIVID - Numerical constraint-oriented language.  "VIVID: The Kernel of a
Knowledge Representation Environment Based on the Constraints Paradigm of
Computation", J. Maleki, Proc 20th Annual Hawaii Intl Conf on System
Sciences (Jan 1987) pp.591-597.

viz - Visual language for specification and programming.  "viz: A Visual
Language Based on Functions", C.M. Holt, 1990 IEEE Workshop on Visual
Langs, Oct 1990, pp.221-226.

fast interpreter to a portable virtual machine.  Introduced the
"chronology", a dynamic enviroment for implementing interrupts.  Led to
Le_Lisp.  (See ObjVlisp).  "Contribution a la Definition Interpretive et a
l'Implementation des Lambda-Langages", P. Greussay, These d'Etat, U Paris
VI, Nov 1977.

VML - VODAK Model Language.  Language for extensible object-oriented
database.  "Object-Oriented Modeling for Hypermedia Systems Using the
Object-Oriented VODAK Model Language (VML)" Wolfgang Klas et al, in Object-
Oriented Database Management Systems, NATO ASI Series, Springer 1993.

VMPL - A microprogramming language with PL/I-like syntax, for an abstract
micromachinee.  The program is first translated into intermediate language,
then compiled into the target microcode.  "Design Objectives for High Level
Microprogramming Languages", K. Malik et al, Proc 11th Ann Workshop
Microprogramming (MICRO-11), 1978, pp.154-160.

VPL - Dataflow language for interactive image processing.  "VPL: An Active,
Declarative Visual Programming System, D. Lau-Kee et al, 1991 IEEE Workshop
on Vis Langs, Oct 1991, pp.40-46.

VSP - Very Simple Prolog+.  [?]


  1. Wayne Ratliff ca. 1980.  CP/M port of JPLDIS which evolved into dBASE

  2. The dBASE-like interpreter and compiler sold by RSPI with their
Emerald Bay product. [same as 1?]

  3. Early string manipulation language.  "VULCAN - A String Handling
Language with Dynamic Storage Control", E.P. Storm et al, Proc FJCC 37,
AFIPS (Fall 1970).

  4. Kahn et al, Xerox PARC.  Concurrent object orientation and logic
programming.  An object-oriented preprocessor for FCP.  "Vulcan: Logical
Concurrent Objects", K. Kahn et al in Research Directions in Object-
Oriented Programming, A.B. Shriver et al eds, MIT Press 1987.

WAFL - WArwick Functional Language.  Warwick U, England.  LISP-like.

WAM - Intermediate language for compiled Prolog, used by the Warren
Abstract Machine.  "An Abstract Prolog Instruction Set", D.H.D. Warren, TR
309, SRI 1983.


WATFIV - WATerloo Fortran IV.  U Waterloo, Canada.  Student-friendly
variant of FORTRAN IV.

WATFOR - WATerloo FORtran.  U Waterloo, Canada.  Student-friendly variant
of FORTRAN.  "WATFOR - The University of Waterloo FORTRAN IV Compiler",
P.W. Shantz et al, CACM 10(1):41-44 (Jan 1967).

WAVE - Robotics language.  "WAVE: A Model-Based Language for Manipulator
Control", R.P. Paul, Ind Robot 4(1):10-17 (1979).

WEB - Knuth's self-documenting brand of programming, with algorithms and
documentation intermixed in one file.  They can be separated using Weave
and Tangle.  Versions exist for Pascal, C etc.  Spiderweb can be used to
create versions for other languages (ftp  "Literate
Programming", D.E. Knuth, Computer J 27(2):97-111 (May 1984).  

WFL - Work Flow Language.  Burroughs, ca 1973.  A job control language for
the B6700/B7700 under MCP.  WFL was a compiled block-structured language
similar to ALGOL-60, with subroutines and nested begin-end's.  "Work Flow
Management User's Guide", Burroughs Manual 5000714 (1973).  "Burroughs
B6700/B7700 Work Flow Language", R.M. Cowan in Command Languages, C. Unger
ed, N-H 1975.

Wisp - "An Experiment with a Self-Compiling Compiler for a Simple List-
Processing Language", M.V. Wilkes, Ann Rev Automatic Programming 4:1-48

Woodenman - HOLWG, DoD, 1975.  Second of the series of DoD requirements
that led to Ada.  "Woodenman Set of Criteria and Needed Characteristics for
a Common DoD High Order Programming Language", David A. Fisher, Inst for
Def {*filter*}Working Paper, Aug 1975.  (See Strawman, Tinman, Ironman,

WOOL - Window Object Oriented Language.  Colas Nahaboo

to be the fastest interpreted language in C with run-time types.  Version 1
used by the GWM window manager.  Version 2 has an object system.*

WPL+ - Word-oriented language internal to PRODOS Applewriter 2.1.
Available on GEnie.

implementation of POP for the PDP-10 that used cages for different data
types.  Introduced processes, properties, and some typed identifiers.

WRITEACOURSE - CAI language, for IBM 360.  "WRITEACOURSE: An Educational
Programming Language", E. Hunt et al, Proc FJCC 33(2) (1968).

WSFN - Which Stands For Nothing.  Atari 1983.  Beginner's language with
emphasis on graphics, for Atari home computers.  Version: Advanced WSFN.

WSL - Waterloo Systems Language.  A C-like systems programming language.
"Waterloo Systems Language:  Tutorial and Language Reference", F.D.
Boswell, WATFAC Publications Ltd, Waterloo, Canada.  ISBN 0-919884-00-8.

X-1 - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Xbase - Generic term for the dBASE family of languages.  Coined in response
to threatened litigation over use of the copyrighted trademark "dBASE."

XC - Declarative extension of C++.  "XC - A Language for Embedded Rule
Based Systems", E. Nuutila et al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(9):23-32 (Sep 1987).

XDL - An object-oriented extension to CCITT's SDL[2].  "XDL: An Object-
Oriented Extension to SDL", S.J. Ochuodho et al in [?]

SML and Russell, intended for computer algebra.  "A Polymorphic Functional
language Applied to Symbolic Computation", S. Dalmas, Proc Intl Symp Symb
Alg Comp, Berkeley 1992.

Xi - VLSI design language.  "The Circuit Design Language Xi", S.I. Feldman,
unpublished memo, Bell Labs, 1982.  Mentioned in Computational Aspects of
VLSI, J.D. Ullman, CS Press 1984.

with object-oriented extensions, portable source in C.  BYTE article.

Common Lisp.*

XLISP-PLUS - An extension of XLISP used in the WINTERP OSF/Motif Widget

XNF - Hardware description language?

XPC - eXplicitly Parallel C.  Dialect of Parallel C which is mode
independent, i.e. efficiently compilable to both SIMD and MIMD
architectures.  "Toward Semantic Self-Consistency in Explicitly Parallel
Languages," M.J. Phillip & H.G. Dietz, Proc 4th Intl Conf on
Supercomputing, Santa Clara, CA, May 1989, v.1, pp.398-407.  Research
implementations only.

XPL - Stanford, 1967-69.  Small dialect of PL/I used for compiler writing.
One-dimensional arrays.  I/O achieved with character pseudo-variable INPUT
and OUTPUT, e.g. OUTPUT = 'This is a line';  Inline machine code.
"Programmers are given all the rope they ask for.  Novices tend to hang
themselves fairly frequently."  Implemented on IBM 360, Univac 1100, ICL
System 4, CDC6000 and {*filter*} series, XDS Sigma-5 and Sigma-7, and DEC PDP-
10.  "A Compiler Generator," W.M. McKeeman et al, P-H 1970.  Also JCC,
AFIPS 1968.

XPOP - Extensible macro assembly language with user-redefinable grammar,
for use with FAP.  "XPOP: A Meta-language Without Metaphysics", M.I.
Halpern, Proc FJCC 25:57-68, AFIPS (Fall 1964).

XScheme - David Betz.  Scheme with object-oriented extensions.  Source in
C.  Versions for PC, Macintosh, Atari, Amiga.
     comp.sources.amiga/volume90, version 0.28 for Amiga

XTRAN - FORTRAN-like, interactive. [?]

Y - General purpose language syntactically like RATFOR, semantically like
C.  Lacks structures and pointers.  Used as a source language for the
Davidson/Fraser peephole optimizer.  "The Y Programming Language", D.R.
Hanson, SIGPLAN Notices 16(2):59-68 (Feb 1981).

Yaa - Yet Another Assembler - Macro assembler for GCOS 8 and Mark III on
Bull DPS-8 machines.  Available from Bull as part of U Waterloo Tools

Yacc - Yet Another Compiler Compiler.  Language used by the Yacc LALR
parser generator.  "YACC - Yet Another Compiler Compiler", S.C. Johnson, CS
TR 32, Bell Labs (Jul 1975).
 ayacc - UC Irvine.  written in Ada, produces Ada output
 Bison - from GNU
 Bison++ - produces C++ output.
 perl-byacc - produces perl output
 SASL-Yacc - "Yacc in SASL - An Exercise in Functional Programming", Simon
Peyton-Jones, Software Prac & Exp 15:807-820 (1985).  Mentions also a BCPL
 Yacc++ - 1990.  An object-oriented rewrite of yacc, supports regular exp-
ressions, produces an LR(1) parser.  "YACC Meets C++", S.C. Johnson, USENIX
Spring '88 Conf.  Chris Clark, Compiler Resources Inc, Barbara Zino

 MLYACC - Implementation and output in SML/NJ

YALLL - Yet Another Low Level Language.  Patterson et al, UC Berkeley,
1979.  A microprogramming language resembling conventional assembly
language.  "Towards an Efficient Machine-Independent Language or
Microprogramming", D.A. Patterson et al, Proc 12th Ann Workshop
Microprogramming (MICRO-12), 1979, pp.22-35

YAPS - Yet Another Production System?  College Park Software.  Commercial
production rule language, simpler than OPS5.  Allows knowledge bases to be
attached to instances of CLOS objects.

YASOS - Yet Another Scheme Object System.

Yay - Yet Another Yacc - An extension of Yacc with LALR(2) parsing.
Available from Bull as part of U Waterloo Tools package (maintained by

Yellow - SRI.  A language proposed to meet the Ironman requirements which
led to Ada. "On the YELLOW Language Submitted to the DoD", E.W. Dijkstra,
SIGPLAN Notices 13(10):22-26 (Oct 1978).

Yerk - (named for Yerkes Observatory)  A public domain reincarnation of

YLISP - Hewlett-Packard.  A variant of Xlisp for the HP-95LX palmtop.*

Z -

  1. ("zed")  Programming Research Group, Oxford U, ca 1980.  A
specification language based on axiomatic set theory and first order
predicate logic.  Uses many non-ASCII symbols.  Used in the IBM CICS
project?  "Understanding Z", J.M. Spivey, Cambridge U Press 1988.  An

  2. A stack-based, complex arithmetic simulation language.  ZOLA

Z++ - Object-oriented extension of Z.  "Z++, an Object-Oriented Extension
to Z", Lano, Z User Workshop, Oxford 1990, Springer Workshops in Computing,
1991, pp.151-172.

ZAP - Language for expressing transformational developments.  "A System for
Assisting Program Transformation", M.S. Feather, ACM TOPLAS 4(1):1-20 (Jan

Zed - 1978.  Software Portability Group, U Waterloo.  Eh, with types added.
Similar to C.  Implementation language for the Thoth realtime operating
system.  Added a few simple types for greater efficiency on byte-addressed
machines.  String constants in case statements.  Enforces the naming
convention: MANIFESTS, Externals and locals.  "Porting the Zed Compiler",
G.B. Bonkowski et al, SIGPLAN Notices 14(8):92-97 (Aug 1979).

ZENO - U Rochester 1978.  Euclid with asynchronous message-passing.
"Preliminary ZENO Language Description", J.E. Ball et al, SIGPLAN Notices
14(9):17-34 (Sep 1979).

ZERO - Object oriented extension of Z.  "Object Orientation in Z", S.
Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZEST - Object oriented extension of Z.  "Object Orientation in Z", S.
Stepney et al eds, Springer 1992.

ZetaLisp - Maclisp dialect used on the LISP Machine.  The many extensions
to Maclisp include vectors, closures, flavors, stack groups, locatives and
invisible pointers.  "LISP Machine Manual", D. Weinreb and D. Moon, MIT AI
Lab, 1981.

ZIL - Zork Implementation Language.  Language used by Infocom's Interactive
Fiction adventure games.  Interpreted by the zmachine, for Unix and Amiga.

Zipcode - [?] Parallel language at Lawrence Livermore?

zsh - Sh with list processing and database enhancements.

ZOPL - Geac. [?] A low-level Pascal?

ZUG - Geac. [?] A low-level Awk?

Zuse - (named for Konrad Zuse, the designer of the first modern programming

1991.  A descendant of Ada, Modula-2, Mesa and Oberon-1 supporting several
levels of information hiding.  The Zuse type system includes fully hidden
types (similar to Modula-2 opaque types but without any implementation
restriction), semi-open pointer types (same as Modula-2 opaque types),
extensible record types (similar to Oberon-1 public projection types but
without the compiler hint), enumeration types, extensible enumeration
types, and extensible subrange types.  A type can also be protected by
specifying the operations that particular modules may perform (similar to
C++ friend classes and Ada private types).  Zuse also includes hidden and
extensible constants and hidden inline procedures.  In order to support the
higher levels of information hiding the implementation employs partial
intermediate code linking.  Version for Sun-3.

Zz - An extensible language.
http://www.*-*-*.com/ :5080/FIND/FREEHEP/NAME/ZZ/FULL


Selected Works on Computer Language History and Design

AFIPS (American Federation of Information Processing Societies), SJCC
(Spring Joint Computer Conference) and FJCC (Fall Joint Computer
Conference), replaced after 1972 by the NCC (National Computer Conference).
TK7885 .A1 J6

Andrews, G.R. and F.B. Schneider, "Concepts and Notations for Concurrent
Programming", ACM Comp Surveys 15(1):1-43 (Mar 1983).

Bal, H.E., "Programming Languages for Distributed Systems", ACM Comp
Surveys 21(3):261-322 (Sep 1989).

Blume, Christian, "Programming Languages for Industrial Robots", Springer

Bobrow, D.G. & Raphael, "New Programming Languages for Artificial
Intelligence Research", ACM Comp Surveys 6:155 (Nov 1974).

Computer Languages  QA 76.7 .C647  ISSN 0096-0551

Conference Record of the 19XX ACM Symposium on Lisp and Functional
Programming, QA 76.73 .L23 A26

Horowitz, Ellis, "Programming Languages, A Grand Tour", 3rd ed, Springer
1987.  QA76.7 .P78

Hudak, Paul, "Conception, Evolution and Application of Functional
Programming Languages", ACM Comp Surveys 21(3):359-411 (Sep 1989).

IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, QA76 .I33x

LFP - Proceedings of the 19XX ACM Conference on Lisp and Functional
Programming.  QA 76.73 .L23 A24

Metropolis, N. et al, "A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century.
Proceedings of the International Research Conference on the History of
Computing", A-P 1986.  QA 75.5 .H58 1986  ISBN 0-12-491650-3.

Milutinovic, V., "Microprogramming and Firmware Engineering", IEEE Computer
Soc Press 1989.  QA 76.6 .M524 1989  ISBN 0-8186-0839-0.

POPL - Conference Record of the [Nth] Annual ACM Symposium on Principles of
Programming Languages.  QA 76.7 .A25a

and Fundamentals",  P-H 1969.  QA76.5 .S213.  The definitive work on early
computer language development.

Sammet, Jean E., "Programming Languages: History and Future", CACM
15(7):601-610 (Jul 1972).

Sammet, Jean E., "Roster of Programming Languages"
        Computers & Automation 16(6):80-82 (June 1967)
        Computers & Automation 17(6):120-123 (June 1968)
        Computers & Automation 18(7):153-158 (June 1969)
        Computers & Automation 19(6B):6-11 (Nov 30, 1970)
        Computers & Automation 20(6B):6-13 (June 30, 1971)
        Computers & Automation 21(6B) (Aug 30, 1972)
        Computing Reviews 15(4): 147-160 (April 1974)
        CACM 19(12):655-669 (Dec 1976)
        SIGPLAN Notices 13(11):56 (Nov 1978).

Shapiro, E., "The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages", ACM
Comp Surveys, 21(3):413-510 (Sep 1989).

ACM SIGPLAN Notices, QA76.7 .A13

Software: Practice and Experience, QA 76.5 .S653

ACM TOPLAS (Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems) QA76.7 .A16

W. van der Poel, Machine Oriented Higher Level Languages, N-H 1974.

Wexelblat, R.L. ed, "Proceedings: ACM SIGPLAN History of Programming
Languages Conference"  (Los Angeles, July 1978).  758 pp.  Academic Press
1981.  An entertaining account of the history of roughly 15 major
programming languages.  Jean Sammet co-organized the conference.  ACM No
548780.  ACM Order Dept: (800)342-6626.  QA76.7 .H56


A Chronology of Influential Computer Languages

Konrad Zuse in Nazi Germany may have developed the first real computer
programming language, "Plankalkul" ca. 1945.  This is mentioned in the 1978
ACM History of Programming Languages FORTRAN session.

According to Sammet, over 200 programming languages were developed between
1952 and 1972, but she considered only about 13 of them to be significant.

1957    FORTRAN
1958    ALGOL
1960    LISP
1960    COBOL
1962    APL
1962    SIMULA
1964    BASIC
1964    PL/I
1966    ISWIM
1970    Prolog
1972    C
1975    Pascal
1975    Scheme
1977    OPS5
1978    CSP
1978    FP
1980    dBASE II
1983    Smalltalk-80
1983    Ada
1983    Parlog
1984    Standard ML
1986    C++
1986    CLP(R)
1986    Eiffel
1988    CLOS
1988    Mathematica
1988    Oberon
1990    Haskell
--Bill Kinnersley

226 Transfer complete.

Tue, 18 Feb 1997 20:20:43 GMT  
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 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

2. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)

3. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 5 of 11)

4. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 4 of 11)

5. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 3 of 11)

6. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 2 of 11)

7. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 9 of 11)

8. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 1 of 11)

9. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 11 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)


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