The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 6 of 11) 
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 The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 6 of 11)

Conf, S. Debray et al eds, MIT Press 1990.
ftp:, a sequential implementation built on
SICStus Prolog.

  2. W.M. Waite, U Colorado.  Intermediate language, claimed as an
implementation of UNCOL.  Used on CDC 6600.  "Experience with the Universal
Intermediate Language Janus", B.K. Haddon et al, Soft Prac & Exp 8(5):601-
616 (Sep 1978).

JAZ - Early system on LGP-30.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

JCL - Job Control Language.  Batch language on IBM OS/360 systems.
Notoriously difficult to program in.

JCS-13 - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

JEAN - A dialect of JOSS.

JOSS - JOHNNIAC Open Shop System.  Charles L. Baker, RAND 1964.  An early
simple interactive calculator language.  "JOSS Users' Reference Manual",
R.L. Clark, Report F-1535/9, RAND Corp (Jan 1975)  Sammet 1969, pp.217-226.
Versions: JOSS I and JOSS II.

Jossle - [?] Type checked language with separate compilation using a
program library.  Mentioned in "Rationale for the Design of Ada", J.
Ichbiah, Cambridge U Press, 1986, p.192.

JOVIAL - Jule's Own Version of IAL.  Jules I. Schwartz 1959-1960.  Based on
ALGOL 58, with extensions for large scale real-time programming.  Saw
extensive use by the US Air Force.  The data elements were items, entries
(records) and tables.  CACM 6(12):721 (Dec 1960)[?].  Versions include
JOVIAL I (IBM 709, 1960), JOVIAL II (IBM 7090, 1961) and JOVIAL 3 (1965).
Dialects: J3, JOVIAL J73, JS, JTS.
info: Ada/Jovial Newsletter, Dale Lange (513)255-4472

Joyce - Brinch Hansen.  Distributed language based on Pascal and CSP.
"Joyce - A Programming Language for Distributed Systems", Per Brinch
Hansen, Soft Prac & Exp 17(1):29-50 (Jan 1987).

JPL - JAM Programming Language.  Imperative string-based language, part of
the JAM tool for developing screen (non-window) applications.  JYACC Corp.

JPLDIS - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Display Information System.  Jack
Hatfield, George Masters, W. Van Snyder, Jeb Long et al, JPL.  Query system
for UNIVAC 1108 [or PDP's?] written in fortran, based on Tymshare's
"Retrieve".  Indirectly led to Vulcan[1] which led to dBASE II.

JS - Dialect of JOVIAL.  Sammet 1969, p.639.

JTS - Simple dialect of JOVIAL.  Sammet 1969, p.528.

Juno - Numerical constraint-oriented language for graphics applications.
Solves its constraints using Newton-Raphson relaxation.  Inspired partly by
Metafont.  "Juno, a Constraint-Based Graphics System", G. Nelson in
SIGGRAPH '85 Conf Readings, B.A. Barsky ed, Jul 1985, pp.235-243.

Jym - Patrick Bellot, France.  A predecessor to Graal.

K5 - Early system on Larc computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Universite de Nantes, 1989; U Victoria, 1992.  Object-oriented language
which mixes imperative and constraint-oriented features.  Similar to Siri.
Vaguely related to Prose[2].  "Kaleidoscope: Mixing Objects, Constraints
and Imperative Programming", B.N. Freeman-Benson, SIGPLAN Notices
25(10):77-88 (OOPSLA/ECOOP '90) (Oct 1990).  "Constraint Imperative
Programming", B.N. Freeman-Benson, Ph.D. Thesis, TR 91-07-02, U Wash
(1991).  "Constraint Imperative Programming", Freeman-Benson et al, IEEE
Conf on Comp Lang, Apr 1992.  Versions: Kaleidoscope '90, Kaleidoscope '91.

Kali - Data parallel language.  "Supporting Shared Data Structures on
Distributed Memory Architectures", C. Koelbel et al in Second ACM SIGPLAN
Symp on Princ and Prac of Parallel Programming, pp.177-186, Mar 1990.

KAP - Kernel Andorra Prolog.  "Kernel Andorra Prolog and its Computation

Conf, MIT Press 1990.  Predecessor to AKL.

Karel - Language featured in Karel the Robot: A Gentle Introduction to
Computer Programming, Richard E. Pattis, Wiley 1981.

KBMS - Expert system.

KCL - Kyoto Common LISP.  Yuasa and Hagiya.  Compiles to ANSI C.  "Design
and Implementation of Kyoto Common Lisp", T. Yuasa

Lisp Report", T. Yuasa & M. Hagiya.

KEE - Knowledge Engineering Environment.  Frame-based expert system.
Supports dynamic inheritance, multiple inheritance, polymorphism.  Classes,
meta-classes and objects are all treated alike.  A class  is an instance of
a meta-class.  Can control rules for merging of each field when multiple
inheritance takes  place.  Methods  are  written  in LISP.  Actions  may
be triggered when fields are accessed or modified.  Extensive GUI
integrates with objects.  Can  easily make  object updates  to be
reflected on  display or display selections  to update fields.   This can
in turn trigger other  methods or  inference rules  which may  then update
other parts of the display.  Intellicorp, for TI Explorer.  "The Role of
Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning", R. Fikes et al, CACM 28(9):904-
920 (Sept 1985).

Kernel Parlog - Modeless intermediate language for Parlog compilation.
"Notes on the Implementation of Parlog", K.L. Clark et al, J Logic Prog
2(1):17-42 (1985).

system built around a threaded code interpreter.  Semantically resembles
Self and Omega.  Syntacically resembles Forth.  TR DCS-197-19, U Victoria,
June 1992.


KFX - Kernel language of FX-87.  "Polymorphic Effect Systems", J.M.
Lucassen et al, Proc 15th Ann ACM Conf POPL, ACM 1988, pp.47-57.

Kid - Kernel language for Id.  A refinement of P-TAC, used as an
intermediate language for Id.  Lambda-calculus with first-class let-blocks,
plus I-structures.  "A Syntactic Approach to Program Transformations", Z.
Ariola et al, SIGPLAN Notices 26(9):116-129 (Sept 1991).

KISS - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

KL0 - Sequential logic language based on Prolog, for the ICOT project,

KL1 - Kernel Language 1.  An experimental AND-parallel version of KL0 for
the ICOT project, Japan.  An implementation of FGHC.  "Design of the Kernel
Language for the Parallel Inference Machine", U. Kazunori et al, Computer J
(Dec 1990).

Klerer-May System - Columbia U.  Early system with special math symbols.
Its reference manual was two pages long!  "Further Advances in Two-
Dimensional Input-Output by Typewriter Terminals", M. Klerer et al, Proc
FJCC 31 (1967).  Sammet 1969, pp.284-294.

KL-ONE - Frame language.  "An Overview of the KL-ONE Knowledge
Representation System", R.J. Brachman and J. Schmolze, Cognitive Sci 9(2),

KMODEL - An ancestor of Model-K.  "Preliminary Results on the BEHAVIOR
Specifications Language KMODEL-0", BEHAVIOR Memo 5-91, 1991, GMD, Sankt
Augustin, Germany

KOMPILER - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
Versions: KOMPILER 2 for IBM 701, KOMPILER 3 for IBM 704.

KRC - Kent Recursive Calculator.  Turner 1981.  Lazy functional language
based on SASL, with pattern matching, ZF expressions.  "Functional
Programming and its Applications", David A. Turner, Cambridge U Press 1982.

KRL - Knowledge Representation Language.  A frame-based language.  "An
Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Language", D.G. Bobrow and T.
Winograd, Cognitive Sci 1:1 (1977).

KRS - Frame-based language built on Common LISP.

KRYPTON - Frame language.  "An Essential Hybrid Reasoning System: Knowledge
and Symbol Level Accounts of of KRYPTON", R.J. Brachman et al, Proc IJCAI-
85, 1985.

ksh - Korn Shell command interpreter for Unix.

L0 - Tech U Munich.  Low level language, typed and with ususal flow
control, but only 3-address expressions.  Higher levels L1 and L2 were
planned.  "Brief Survey of L0", H. Scheidig, in Machine Oriented Higher
Level Languages, W. van der Poel ed, N-H 1974, pp.239-247.

L6 - Bell Telephone Laboratories Low-Level Linked List Language.  Ken
Knowlton, 1965.  List processing language, typeless.  "A Programmer's
Description of L6, Bell Telephone Laboratories' Low-Level Linked List
Language", K. Knowlton CACM 9(8):616-625 (Aug 1966).  Sammet 1969, pp.400-

Lace - Language for Assembling Classes in Eiffel.  Specifies how to
assemble an Eiffel system : in which directories to find the clusters,
which class to use as the root, permits class renaming to avoid name
clashes.  "Eiffel: The Language", Bertrand Meyer, P-H 1992.

LADY - "Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer Project", J. Nehmer et al
IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987).

Lakota - Scripting language, extends existing OS commands.

LAMBDA - A version of typed lambda calculus, used to describe semantic
domains.  "Outline of a Mathematical Theory of Computation", D.S. Scott, TM
PRG-2, PRG, Oxford U, 1971.

lambda-Prolog - An extension of standard Prolog, in which terms are typed
lambda-terms.  Prolog/Mali compiler uses the MALI abstract memory system.

LAMINA - Concurrent object-oriented language.  "Experiments with a
Knowledge-based System on a Multiprocessor", Third Intl Conf Supercomputing
Proc, 1988.  "ELINT in LAMINA, Application of a Concurrent Object
language", Delagi et al, KSL-88-3, Knowledge Sys Labs, Stanford U.

Language H - NCR.  Early business-oriented language.

Laning and Zierler - J.H. Laning Jr and N. Zierler, 1953-1954.  Possibly
the first true working algebraic compiler.  On MIT's Whirlwind computer.
Sammet 1969, pp.131-132.

LAP - LISP Assembly Program.  Assembly language embedded into early LISP.
Sammet 1969, p.597.  Also used by the Liar compiler for MIT Scheme, and

LAP4 - Early assembly language for Linc-8 machine.

LAPSE - Single assignment language for the Manchester dataflow machine.  "A
Single Assignment Language for Data Flow Computing", J.R.W. Glauert, M.Sc
Diss, ...

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Sat, 06 Jul 1996 10:40:23 GMT  
 The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 6 of 11)

MAXIMOP - "Job Control Languages: MAXIMOP and CAFE", J. Brandon, Proc BCS
Symp on Job Control Languages--Past Present and Future, NCC, Manchester,
ENgland 1974.

MBASIC - Microsoft BASIC.

MC - Extension of C with modules.  Symbols in other modules can be
referenced using a dot notation.  "Design and Implementation of a C-Based
Language for Distributed Real-Time Systems", A. Rizk et al, SIGPLAN Notices
22(6):83-96 (June 1987).

McG360 - Interactive, similar to PAL[5], for IBM 360.  "McG360 Programmer's
Guide", RC 2693, IBM TJWRC, Nov 1969.

MCL - Macintosh Common LISP.

M-Code -

 1) Intermediate code produced by the Modula-2 compiler. [which one?]

 2) Intermediate language for an SECD-like machine, used by the Concert
implementation of MultiLISP.

MCS - Meta Class System.  A portable object-oriented extension of Common

MDL - (originally "Muddle").  C. Reeve, C. Hewitt & G. Sussman, Dynamic
Modeling Group, MIT ca. 1971.  Intended as a successor to Lisp, and a
possible base for Planner-70.  Basically LISP 1.5 with data types and
arrays.  Many of its features were advanced at the time (I/O, interrupt
handling and coroutining), and were incorporated into later LISP dialects
("optional", "rest" and "aux" markers).  In the mid 80's there was an
effort to use bytecoding to make the language portable.  CLU was first
implemented in MDL.  Infocom wrote Zork in MDL, and used it as the basis
for the ZIL interpreter.  "The MDL Programming Language", S.W. Galley et
al, Doc SYS.11.01, Project MAC, MIT (Nov 1975).  Implementations exist for
ITS, TOPS-20, BSD 4.3, Apollo Domain, SunOS and A/UX.

me too - Peter Henderson, 1984.  Functional language for executable
specifications.  Like LispKit Lisp, but with sets, maps and sequences to
describe the specification.  "Functional Programming, Formal Specification
and Rapid Prototyping", IEEE Trans Soft Eng, SE-12(2):241-250 (Feb 1986).

MELD - Concurrent, object-oriented, dataflow, modular and fault-tolerant!
Comparable to SR.  "MELDing Multiple Granularities of Parallelism", G.
Kaiser et al, ECOOP '89, pp.147-166, Cambridge U Press 1989.

MeldC - Columbia U, 1990.  A C-based concurrent object-oriented
coordination language built on a reflective architecture.  A redesign of
MELD.  Version 2.0 for Sun4's and DECstations.

Melinda - "Melinda: Linda with Multiple Tuple Spaces", S. Hupfer,

Mentat - U {*filter*}ia.  Object-oriented distributed language, an extension of
C++, portable to a variety of MIMD architectures.  "Mentat: An Object-

al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):35-47 (Dec 1987) (OOPSLA '87).  Available now
for Sun 3 & 4 and iPSC/2, and soon Mach, iPSC860, RS/6000 and Iris.

MENTOR - CAI language.  "Computer Systems for Teaching Complex Concepts",
Report 1742, BBN, Mar 1969.

MENYMA/S - "A Message Oriented Language for System Applications", A. Koch
et al, Proc 3rd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1982, pp.824-832.

Mercury Autocode - Autocode for the Ferranti Mercury machine.  (See

MEROON - An object-oriented system built on Scheme.

Mesa - Xerox PARC, 1977.  System and application programming for
proprietary hardware: Alto, Dolphin, Dorado and Dandelion.  Pascal-like
syntax, Algol68-like semantics.  An early version was weakly typed.  Mesa's
modules with separately compilable definition and implementation parts
directly led to Wirth's design for Modula.  Threads, coroutines
(fork/join), exceptions, and monitors.  Type checking may be disabled.
Mesa was used internally by Xerox to develop ViewPoint, the Xerox Star,
MDE, and the controller of a high-end copier.  It was released to a few
universitites in 1985.  Succeeded by Cedar.  "Mesa Language Manual", J.G.
Mitchell et al, Xerox PARC, CSL-79-3 (Apr 1979).  "Early Experience with
Mesa", Geschke et al, CACM 20(8):540-552 (Aug 1977).

META - CDC, ca 1977.  Assembly language for the {*filter*} 200.  CDC Pub

META 5 - Early syntax-directed compiler-compiler, used for translating one
high-level language to another.  "META 5: A Tool to Manipulate Strings of
Data", D.K. Oppenheim et al, Proc 21st Natl Conf, ACM 1966.  Sammet 1969,
p.638.  Versions: META II, META-3.

Meta-II - An early compiler-compiler.  "Meta-II: a Syntax Oriented Compiler
Writing Language", V. Schorre, Proc 19th ACM Natl Conf 1964.

Meta-IV - See VDM-SL.

Meta-Crystal - A language for transformations of Crystal programs.
Implemented in T.  "Meta-Crystal- A Metalanguage for Parallel-Program
Optimization", J.A. Yang et al, TR YALEU/DCS/TR-786, Yale Apr 1990.  (See

METAFONT - Knuth.  A system for the design of raster-based alphabets.
Companion to TeX.  "The METAFONT Book," Donald Knuth, A-W 1986.  Version
2.0, March 1990.


  1. Mega-Extensive Telecommunications Applications Language.  BBS language
for PRODOS 8 on Apple ][.

  2. The syntax-definition formalism of the Mentor system.  Metal
specifications are compiled to specifications for a scanner/parser
generator such as Lex/Yacc.  "Metal: A Formalism to Specify Formalisms", G.
Kahn et al, Sci Comp Prog 3:151-188 (1983).

many innovations.

Met-English - Metropolitan Life, early 60's.  Fortran-like, with support
for variable-length bit fields.  Most MetLife DP in the 60's and 70's was
in Met-English.  Originally for Honeywell machines, but many programs still
run under IBM/MVS via a Honeywell emulator.

METEOR - A version of COMIT with Lisp-like syntax, written in MIT Lisp 1.5
for the IBM 7090.  "METEOR - A List Interpreter for String Transformation",
D.G. Bobrow in The Programming Language LISP and its Interpretation, E.D.
and D.G. Bobrow eds, 1964.

Methods - Digitalk, ca 1985.  Line-oriented Smalltalk for PC's, predecessor
of Smalltalk/V.


  1. MIMIC Hardware Description Language.

  2. Microwave Hardware Description Language.  Incorporates Haskell 1.2.

Mic-1, Mic-2 - Microprogramming languages, used in Structured Computer
Organization, A.S. Tanenbaum, 3rd ed, P-H 1989, Sect 4.4, 4.5.  [See Mac-

microPLANNER - G.J. Sussman et al, MIT.  Subset of PLANNER, implemented in
LISP.  Superseded by Conniver.  Important features: goal-oriented, pattern-
directed procedure invocation, embedded knowledge base, automatic
backtracking.  "microPLANNER Reference Manual", G.J. Sussman et al, AI Memo
203, MIT AI Lab, 1970.

MIDAS - Digital simulation language.  Sammet 1969, p.627.

MIIS - ("Meese").  Interpreted.  One-letter keywords.  Similar to MUMPS?

MIKE - Micro Interpreter for Knowledge Engineering.  Expert system shell
for teaching purposes, with forward and backward chaining and user-
definable conflict resolution strategies.  In Edinburgh Prolog.  BYTE Oct
1990.  Version 2.03

MILITRAN - Sys Res Group, ONR 1964.  Discrete simulation for military
applications.  Sammet 1969, p.657.

MIMIC - J.H. Andrews, NIH 1967.  Early language for solving engineering
problems such as differential equations that would otherwise have been done
on an analog computer.  "MIMIC, An Alternative Programming Language for
Industrial Dynamics, N.D. Peterson, Socio-Econ Plan Sci. 6, Pergamon 1972.

MIMOLA - Operational hardware specification language.  "A Retargetable
Compiler for a High-Level Microprogramming Language", 17th Ann Workshop on
Microprogramming, P. Marwedel, IEEE 1984, pp.267-274.

Mini-ML - "A Simple Applicative Language: Mini-ML", D. Clement et al, Proc
1986 ACM Conf on LISP and Functional Prog, (Aug 1986).

Mini PL/I - A commercial PL/I subset for the Olivetti Audit 7 minicomputer.

MINITAB II - Interactive solution of small statistical problems.  "MINITAB
Student Handbook", T.A. Ryan et al, Duxbury Press 1976.

MINT - Mint Is Not TRAC.  Version of TRAC used as the extension language in
the Freemacs editor.

subset of Miranda, no modules or files.  Can be interactively switched
between eager and lazy evaluation.  Portable source in C from the author.

Miranda - (latin for "admirable", also the {*filter*}e of Shakespeare's

purely functional.  A commercial descendant of SASL and KRC, with ML's type
system.  Terse syntax using the offside rule for indentation.  Type
declarations are optional.  Nested pattern-matching, list comprehensions,
modules.  Sections rather than lambda abstractions.  User types are
algebraic, may be constrained by laws.  Implemented by SKI reduction.  The
KAOS operating system is written entirely in Miranda.  "Miranda: A Non
Strict Functional Language with Polymorphic Types", D.A. Turner, in
Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture, LNCS 201,
Springer 1985.  "Functional Programming with Miranda", Holyer, Pitman Press
0-273-03453-7.  (See Miracula, Orwell).

ftp:* and mira2lml*  Translators from
MIranda to Haskell and Miranda to LML

MIRFAC - Mathematics in Recognizable Form Automatically Compiled.  Early
interactive system resembling BASIC, typewriter output with special math
symbols.  Sammet 1969, pp.281-284.

MISHAP - Early system on IBM 1103 or 1103A.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16, (May

MITILAC - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

MIXAL - MIX Assembly Language.  Assembly language for Knuth's hypothetical
MIX machine, used in The Art of Computer Programming v.1, Donald Knuth,
A-W 1969.

MJS - Early system on UNIVAC I or II.  Listed in CACM

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Sat, 06 Jul 1996 10:41:24 GMT  
 The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 6 of 11)

  2. Language of the object-oriented database GemStone.  "Making Smalltalk
a Database System", G. Copeland et al, Proc SIGMOD'84, ACM 1984, pp.316-

  3. Simulation language with provision for stochastic variables.  An
extension of Autostat.  "C-E-I-R OPAL", D. Pilling, Internal Report,
C.E.I.R. Ltd (1963).

  4. Language for compiler testing said to be used internally by DEC.

  5. Technical University of Berlin.  Applicative.


  1. On-line Process Synthesizer.  M. Greenberger, MIT ca. 1964.  Discrete
simulation under CTSS.  Sammet 1969, p.660.  Versions: OPS-3, OPS-4.  "On-
line Computation and Simulation: The OPS-3 System", M. Greenberger et al,
MIT Press 1965.

  2. Official Production System.  CMU, 1970.  The first production-system
(i.e. rule-based) programming language, used for building expert systems.
Written originally in Franz Lisp, later ported to other LISP dialects.

OPS5 - Charles L. F{*filter*}.  1977 version of OPS[2], publicly available from

"Programming Expert Systems in OPS5", L. Brownston et al, A-W 1985.  "An
OPS5 Primer", Sherman et al, comes with OPS5 for DOS.  Other versions:
OPS4, OPS5+, OPS83.  Inference Engine Tech, Cambridge MA.
ftp: an OPS5 interpreter in
Common LISP.
  C5 - An OPS5 implementation in C.  "Rule-Based Programming in the Unix
System", G.T. Vesonder, AT&T Tech J 67(1), 1988.

OPTRAN - R. Wilhelm, U Saarlandes, early 1980's.  Specification language
for attributed tree transformation.  "POPSY and OPTRAN Manual", ESPRIT
PROSPECTRA Project Item S.1.6-R.3.0, U Saarlandes (Mar 1986).

Orca - Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1986.  Similar to Modula-2, but with
support for distributed programming using shared data objects, like Linda.
A 'graph' data type removes the need for pointers.  Version for the Amoeba
OS, comes with Amoeba.  "Orca: A Language for Distributed Processing", H.E.

OREGANO - "On the Design and Specification of the Programming Language
OREGANO", D.M. Berry. UCLA-ENG-7388, 1973.

Orient84/K - Y. Ishikawa, Keio U, Yokohama.  "A Concurrent Object-Oriented
Knowledge Representation Language Orient84/K", Y. Ishikawa et al, SIGPLAN
Notices 21(11):232-241 (OOPSLA '86) (Nov 1986).

ORTHOCARTAN - A. Krasinski, Warsaw, early 80's.  Symbolic math, especially
General Relativity.  

Orwell - Lazy functional language, Miranda-like.  List comprehensions and
pattern matching.  "Introduction to Orwell 5.00", P.L. Wadler et al,
Programming Research Group, Oxford U, 1988.


  1. Oregon State Conversational Aid to Research.  Interactive numerical
calculations, vectors, matrices, complex arithmetic, string operations, for
CDC 3300.  "OSCAR: A User's Manual with Examples", J.A. Baughman et al, CC,
Oregon State U.

  2. Object-oriented language used in the COMANDOS Project.  "OSCAR:
Programming Language Manual", TR, COMANDOS Project, Nov 1988.

O'small - Small object-oriented language intended for teaching.*

OSQL - Object-oriented Structured Query Language.  Functional language,
superset of SQL, used in Hewlett-Packard's OpenODB database system.

OSSL - Operating Systems Simulation Language.  "OSSL - A Specialized
Language for Simulating Computer Systems", P.B. Dewan et al, Proc SJCC 40,
AFIPS (Spring 1972).

Ottawa Euclid - Variant of Euclid.

OWHY - Early functional language?  "A Type-Theoretical Alternative to CUCH,
ISWIM, OWHY", Dana Scott, Oxford U 1969.

Owl - Original name of Trellis.

Ox - Language for specification of attribute grammars.  "User Manual for
Ox: An Attribute-Grammar Compiling System based on Yacc, Lex and C", K.M.
Bischoff, TR92-30, Iowa State U, Dec 1992.

Oz - U Saarbrucken.  Object-oriented concurrent constraint language.  Based
on constraint communication, a new form of asynchronous communication using
logic variables.  Partial information about the values of variables is
imposed concurrently and incrementally.  Supports higher order programming
and object-orientation including multiple inheritance.  "Object-Oriented
Concurrent Constraint Programming in Oz", G. Smolka et al.

P+ - "Experience with Remote Procedure Calls in a Real-Time Control
System", B. Carpenter et al, Soft Prac & Exp 14(9):901-907 (Sep 1984).

parallel programming, using monitors on shared memory machines, message
passing on distributed memory machines.  Implemented as a subroutine
library for C and Fortran.  An enhancement of the "Argonne macros",

PACT I - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).
Version: PACT IA for IBM 704.

PACTOLUS - Digital simulation.  Sammet 1969, p.627.

Paddle - Language for transformations leading from specification to
program.  Used in POPART, a grammar-driven programming environment
generator.  "POPART: Producer of Paddles and Related Tools, System
Builders' Manual", D.S. Wile TR RR-82-21, ISI, Marina del Rey, CA 1982.

PAGE - Typesetting language.  "Computer Composition Using PAGE-1", J.L.
Pierson, Wiley 1972.

PaiLisp - Parallel Lisp built on Scheme.  1986.  "A Parallel Lisp Language
PaiLisp and its Kernel Specification", T. Ito et al, in Parallel Lisp:
Languages and Systems, T. Ito et al eds, LNCS 441, Springer 1989.

PAISley - Bell Labs.  Operational specification language.  "An Operational
Approach to Requirements Specification for Embedded Systems", P. Zave, IEEE
Trans Soft Eng SE-8(3):250-269 (May 1982).


  1. Paradox Application Language.  Language for Paradox, Borland's
relational database.

  2. For the AVANCE distributed persistent OS.  "PAL Reference Manual", M.
Ahlsen et al, SYSLAB WP-125, Stockholm 1987.  "AVANCE: An Object Management
System", A. Bjornerstedt et al, SIGPLAN Notices 23(11):206-221 (OOPSLA '88)
(Nov 1988).

  3. Object-oriented Prolog-like language.  "Inheritance Hierarchy
Mechanism in Prolog", K. Akama, Proc Logic Prog '86, LNCS 264, Springer
1986, pp.12-21.

  4. PDP Assembly Language.  Assembly language for PDP-8 and PDP-11.

  5. Pedagogic Algorithmic Language.  "PAL - A Language for Teaching
Programming Linguistics", A. Evans Jr, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf,
Brandon/Systems Press (1968).

Pam - Toy ALGOL-like language used in "Formal Specification of Programming
Languages: A Panoramic Primer", F.G. Pagan, P-H 1981.

Pandora - Parlog extended to allow "don't-know" non-determinism.  "Pandora:
Non-Deterministic Parallel Logic Programming", R. Bahgat et al, Proc 6th
Intl Conf Logic Programming, MIT Press 1989 pp.471-486.

PANON - A family of pattern-directed string processing languages based on
generalized Markov algorithms.  "String Processing Languages and
Generalized Markov Algorithms", A. C. Forino, Proc IFIP Working Conf on
Symb Manip Languages, pp.141-206, Amsterdam 1968.  PANON-1, based on Simple
GMA's and PANON-2 based on Conditional Functional GMA's.

Paragon - Mark Sherman.  IEEE Software (Nov 1991). [?]

Paralation - PARALlel reLATION.  Sabot, MIT 1987.  A framework for parallel
programming.  A "field" is an array of objects, placed at different sites.
A paralation is a group of fields, defining nearness between field
elements.  Operations can be performed in parallel on every site of a
paralation.  "The Paralation Model: Architecture Independent Programming",

Paralation LISP - Embeds the paralation model in Common LISP.  Available
from MIT Press, (800)356-0343.

Paralation C - Paralation embedded in C.  Under development.

ParAlfl - Hudak, Yale.  Parallel functional language, a superset of Alfl.
Used by the Alfalfa system on Intel iPSC and Encore Multimax.  "Para-
Functional Programming", P. Hudak, Computer 19(8):60-70 (Aug 1986).
"Alfalfa: Distributed Graph Reduction on a Hypercube Multiprocessor", B.
Goldberg & P. Hudak, TR, Yale U, Nov 1986.

Parallaxis - U Stuttgart.  Data-parallel (SIMD) language, based on Modula-
2.  "User Manual for Parallaxis Version 2.0", T. Braunl, U Stuttgart.
Simulator for workstations, Mac and PC.

Parallel C - Never implemented, but influenced the design of C*.

Parallel FORTH - For the MPP.

Parallel Pascal - Data-parallel language, similar to Actus and Glypnir.
"Parallel Pascal: An Extended Pascal for Parallel Computers", A. Reeves, J
Parallel Dist Computing 1:64-80 (1984).

Parallel SML - "Parallel SML: A Functional Language and its Implementation
in Dactl", Kevin Hammond, Pitman Press 1990.

Parasol - Parallel Systems Object Language.  Object-oriented, supports
network and parallel computing.  Modules, exceptions.  "The Parasol

Oct 1993, pp.34-41.

Pari - Symbolic math, especially number theory.  Version 1.37 for Unix,
Macintosh, MS-DOS, Amiga.


Paris - PARallel Instruction Set.  Low-level language for the Connection

Parlance - Concurrent language.  "Parallel Processing Structures:
Languages, Schedules, and Performance Results", P.F. Reynolds, PhD Thesis,
UT Austin 1979.

Parlog - Clark & Gregory, Imperial College 1983.  An AND-parallel Prolog,
with guards and committed choice [=don't care] nondeterminism.  Shallow
backtracking only.  "Parlog: A Parallel Logic Programming Language", K.L.
Clark and S. Gregory, Imperial College, London, May 1983.  ("Parlog83", in
which the ouput mechanism was assignment).  "Parallel Logic Programming in
PARLOG, The Language and Its Implementation", S. Gregory, A-W 1987.
("Parlog86", in which the output mechanism was unification, as in GHC).
(See ...

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Sat, 06 Jul 1996 10:42:21 GMT  
 [ 5 post ] 

 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 11 of 11)

2. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 10 of 11)

3. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 9 of 11)

4. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 1 of 11)

5. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 4 of 11)

6. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 3 of 11)

7. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 2 of 11)

8. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 11 of 11)

9. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

11. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)


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