The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 3 of 11) 
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 The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 3 of 11)

Proc 5th Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys IEEE 1985, pp.140-149.


  1. A query language.  "Towards a Knowledge Description Language", A.
Borgida et al, in On Knowledge Base Management Systems, J. Mylopoulos et al
eds, Springer 1986.

  2. Concurrent ML.  J. Reppy, Cornell 1990.  A concurrent extension of
SML/NJ, supporting dynamic thread creation and synchronous message passing
on typed channels.  Threads are implemented using first-class
continuations.  "CML: A Higher-Order Concurrent Language", John H. Reppy,
SIGPLAN Notices 26(6):293-305 (June 1991).

Cmm - C Minus Minus.  Scripting language.

CMS-2 - General purpose language used for command and control applications
in the US Navy.  Variants: CMS-2M and CMS-2Y.  "CMS-2Y Programmers
Reference Manual", M-5049, PDCSSA, San Diego CA (Oct 1976).

CO2 - (a blend of C and O2).  Object-oriented database language.  GIP
Altair, Versailles, France.  Francois Bancilon et al, in Advances in
Object-Oriented Database Systems, K.R. Dittrich ed, LNCS 334, Springer

COALA - "COALA: The Object Code of the Compiler Producing System", S.
Kruszewski et al, MERA, Warsaw 1974.

COBOL - COmmon Business Oriented Language.  1960.  CODASYL Committee, Apr
1960.  Simple computations on large amounts of data.  The most widely used
programming language today.  The natural language style is intended to be
largely self-documenting.  Introduced the record structure.  "Initial
Specifications for a Common Business Oriented Language" DoD, US GPO, Apr
1960.  Major revisions in 1968 (ANS X3.23-1968), 1974 (ANS X3.23-1974), and
1985.  A new ISO standard is expected in 1997.

COBOL-1961 Extended - Short-lived separation of COBOL specifications.
Sammet 1969, p.339.

CoCoA - [Symbolic math?  On a Radio Shack CoCo???  I have no idea.]

Cocol - Coco Language.  A language for writing left-attributed LL(1)
grammars.  Syntactic resemblance to Modula-2.  Used as the input language
for the Coco LL(1) parser generator, which produces Modula-2 output.  "A
Compiler Generator for Microcomputers", P. Rechenberg et al, P-H 1989.
Version: Cocol-2 for the Coco-2 generator. (output in Oberon)

Code 2.0 - Large-grain dataflow language.  Has a graphical interface for
users to draw communication structure.  "The CODE 2.0 Parallel Programming
Language", P. Newton et al, Proc ACM Intl Conf on Supercomput, Jul 1992.

CODIL - COntext Dependent Information Language.  Early language for non-
numerical business problems.  "CODIL, Part1.  The Importance of
Flexibility", C.F. Reynolds et al, Computer J 14(3):217-220 (May 1971).

COFF - Common Object File Format.  Binary file format used by Unix System V
Release 3.

COGENT - COmpiler and GENeralized Translator.  Compiler writing language
with pattern-directed string and list processing features, for CDC 3600 and
CDC 3800.  A program consists of productions defining a context-free
language, plus analysis and synthesis function generators, "COGENT
Programming Manual", J.C. Reynolds, ANL-7022, Argonne, Mar 1965.  Sammet
1969, p.638.  "An Introduction to the COGENT System", J.C. Reynolds, Proc
ACM 20th Natl Conf, 1965.

COGO - Co-ordinate geometry problems in Civil Engineering.  A subsystem of
ICES.  "Engineer's Guide to ICES COGO I", R67-46, CE Dept MIT (Aug 1967).

Coherent Parallel C - Data parallel language.  "Coherent Parallel C", E.
Felten et al in Third Conf on Hypercube Concurrent Computers and Appls,
ACM, 1988, pp.440-450.

COIF - fortran with interactive graphic extensions for circuit design, on
UNIVAC 1108.  "An Interactive Software System for Computer-Aided Design: An
Application to Circuit Projects", CACM 9(13) (Sep 1970).

COLASL - Early system for numerical problems on IBM 7030.  Special
character set for input of natural math expressions.  Sammet 1969, pp.265-

COLD - A sugared version of COLD-K.

COLD-K - Formal design kernel language for describing (sequential) software
systems in intermediate stages of their design.  "An Introduction to COLD-
K", H.B.M. Jonkers in Algebraic Methods: Theory, Tools and Applications, M.
Wirsing et al eds, LNCS 394, Springer 1989, pp.139-205.

COLINGO - Compile On-LINe and GO.  MITRE Corp.  English-like query system
for IBM 1401.  "The COLINGO System Design Philosophy", Information System
Sciences, Proc Second Congress, 1965.  Sammet 1969, p.664.

COMAL - COMmon Algorithmic Language.  Benedict Loefstedt & Borge
Christensen, 1973.  A language for beginners, popular in Europe and
Scandinavia.  Pascal-like structure added to BASIC.  COMAL-80 has been
adopted as an introductory language in Denmark.  "Beginning COMAL", B.
Christensen, Ellis Harwood 1982.  COMAL User's Group, 5501 Groveland Terr,
Madison WI 53716.  Version for Amiga.

COMIT - 1957-8.  The first string-handling and pattern-matching language,
designed for applications in natural language translation.  The user has a
workspace organized into shelves.  Strings are made of constituents
(words), accessed by subscript.  A program is a set of rules, each of which
has a pattern, a replacement and goto another rule.  "COMIT Programmer's
Reference Manual", V.H. Yngve, MIT Press 1961.  Sammet 1969, pp.416-436.

COMIT II - "Computer Programming with COMIT II", Victor H. Yngve, MIT
Press, 1963.

Comma - COMputable MAthematics.  Esprit project at KU Nijmegen.

COMMEN - L.J. Cohen.  Proc SJCC 30:671-676, AFIPS (Spring 1967).

Commercial Translator - English-like pre-COBOL language for business data
processing.  Sammet 1969, p.378.

Common LISP - An effort begun in 1981 to provide a common dialect of LISP.
The result is a large and complex language, fairly close to a superset of
MacLisp.  Lexical binding, data structures using defstruct and setf,
closures, multiple values, types using declare, a variety of numerical
types.  Function calls allow optional, keyword and &rest arguments.  
Generic sequence can either be a list or an array.  Formatted printing
using escape characters.  Common LISP now includes CLOS, an extended LOOP
macro, condition system, pretty printing, logical pathnames.  "Common LISP:
The Language", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press 1984, ISBN 0-932376-41-X.
"Common LISP: The Language, 2nd Edition", Guy L. Steele, Digital Press
1990, ISBN 1-55558-041-6.
(See AKCL, CCL, DCL, KCL, MCL)*  CMU Common LISP Version 16e
        Draft proposed ANS Common Lisp

CommonLoops - Xerox.  An object-oriented LISP.  Led to CLOS.  "CommonLoops:
Merging Lisp and Object-Oriented Programming", D.G. Bobrow et al, SIGPLAN
Notices 21(11):17-29 (Nov 1986).  (See CLOS, PCL). - Pcl (Portable

Common Objects - H-P.  An object-oriented LISP.  "Inheritance and the
Development of Encapsulated Software Components", A. Snyder, Proc 20th
Hawaii Conf on Sys Sci, pp.227-238 (1987).

Compact COBOL - Subset of COBOL defined, but not published, ca. 1961.
Sammet 1969, p.339.

Compas Pascal - Predecessor of Turbo Pascal, by POLY Data of Denmark.
Later renamed POLY Pascal, and afterwards sold to Borland.

COMPASS - COMPrehensive ASSembler.  Assembly language on CDC machines.

Compel - COMpute ParallEL.  The first single-assignment language.  "A
Language Design for Concurrent Processes", L.G. Tesler et al, Proc SJCC
32:403-408, AFIPS (Spring 1968).

Compiler-Compiler - Early compiler generator for the Atlas, with its own
distinctive input language.  "The Compiler-Compiler", R.A. Brooker et al,
Ann Rev Automatic Programming 3:229-275, Pergamon 1963.

COMPL - "The COMPL Language and Operating System", A.G. Fraser et al,
Computer J 9(2):144-156 (1966).

COMPREHENSIVE - Early system on MIT's Whirlwind.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16
(May 1959).

COMPROSL - COMpound PROcedural Scientific Language.  Language for
scientists or engineers.  Sammet 1969, p.299-300.

Computer Animation Movie Language.  "A Computer Animation Movie Language
for Educational Motion Pictures", D.D. Weiner et al, Proc FJCC 33(2), AFIPS
(Fall 1968).

Computer Compiler - Proposed language for compiler design.  Sammet 1969,

Computer Design Language - ALGOL-like language for computer design.  "An
ALGOL-like Computer Design Language", Y. Chu, CACM 8(10) (Oct 1965).

COMSL - COMmunication System Simulation Language.  "COMSL - A Communication
System Simulation Language", R.L. Granger, Proc FJCC 37 (1970).

COMTRAN - "Communications Computer Language COMTRAN", D.W. Clark et al,
RADC-TR-69-190, Rose Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, NY (July 1969).
Sammet 1969, p.324, 331.

ConC - Concurrent extension of C based on DPN (decomposed Petri nets),
using 'handshake' and 'unit' constructs.  "ConC: A Language for Distributed
Real-Time Programming", V.K. Garg et al, Computer Langs 16(1):5-18 (1991).

Concert/C - IBM TJWRC, July 1993.  A parallel extension of ANSI C with
asynchronous message passing.

CONCUR - "CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M.
Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189 (1981).

Concurrent C -
  1. Extension of C with rendezvous-based concurrency.  "Concurrent C",
N.H. Gehani et al, Soft Prac & Exp 16(9):821-844 (1986).  "The Concurrent C
Programming Language", N. Gehani et al, Silicon  Press 1989.  Versions for
most Unix systems available commercially from AT&T.

  2. Extension of C with asynchronous message passing.  [NOT the same as
above] "Concurrent C: A Language for Distributed Systems", Y. Tsujino et
al, Soft Prac & Exp 14(11):1061-1078 (Nov 1984).

Concurrent C++ - "Concurrent C++: Concurrent Programming with Class(es)",
N. Gehani, Bell labs 1986.

Concurrent Clean - An implementation of CFP.  A version of Clean for
loosely coupled parallel architectures.  Lazy, purely functional.  Strongly
typed (Milner/Mycroft), modules, functional I/O (including windows and
mouse).  Compiles to the PABC machine, based on graph rewriting.
"Concurrent Clean", M.C. van Eekelen et al, TR 89-18, U Nijmegen,
Netherlands, 1989.  Version: 0.8.1, October 1992.* - simulator for Mac, Sun3, Sun4

Concurrent CLU - Hamilton, Cambridge U, 1984.  "Preserving Abstraction in
Concurrent  Programming", R. Cooper et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-
14(2):258-263 (Feb 1988).

Concurrent Euclid - J.R. Cordy & R.C. Holt, U Toronto, 1980.  Subset of
Euclid ("Simple Euclid") with concurrent extensions.  Separate compilation,
modules, processes and monitors, signal and wait on condition variables.
'Converters' to defeat strong type checking, absolute addresses.  All
procedures and functions are re-entrant.  TUNIS (a Unix-like OS) is written
in Concurrent Euclid.  "Specification of Concurrent Euclid", J.R. Cordy &
R.C. Holt, Reports CSRI-115 & CSRI-133, CSRI, U Toronto, Jul 1980, rev. Aug
1981.  "Concurrent Euclid, The Unix System, and Tunis," R.C. Holt, A-W,

Concurrent LISP - "A Multi-Processor System for Concurrent Lisp", S.
Sugimoto et al, Proc 1983 Intl Conf parallel Proc, 1983 pp.135-143.

Concurent Oberon - not a separate language, but rather a modification of
the Oberon system.

Concurrent Pascal - Brinch Hansen, 1972-75.  Extension of a Pascal subset,
Sequential Pascal.  The first language to support monitors.  Access to
hardware devices through monitor calls.  Also processes and classes.  "The
Programming Language Concurrent Pascal", Per Brinch Hansen, IEEE Trans Soft
Eng 1(2):199-207 (Jun 1975).

Guarded clauses and committed-choice [= dont-care] nondeterminism.  A
subset's been implemented, but not the full language.  "Concurrent Prolog:
Collected Papers", E. Shapiro, V.1-2, MIT Press 1987.  (See Mandala).

Lisp, for the Mayfly.  "Concurrent Scheme", R.R. Kessler et al, in Parallel
Lisp: Languages and Systems, T. Ito et al eds, LNCS 441, Springer 1989.

ConcurrentSmalltalk - Concurrent variant of Smalltalk (what did you
expect).  "Concurrent Programming in ConcurrentSmalltalk", Y. Yokote et al
in Object-Oriented Concurrent Programming, A. Yonezawa et al eds, MIT Press
1987, pp.129-158.

condela - Connection Definition Language.  A language for defining neural
nets.  Procedural and parallel.

CONIC - "Dynamic Configuration for Distributed Systems", J. Kramer et al,
IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-11(4):424-436 (Apr 1985).

Connection Machine LISP - LISP with a parallel data structure, the
'xapping', an array of values assigned to an array of sites.  G.L. Steele
et al, "Connection Machine LISP: Fine-Grained Parallel Symbolic
Processing", in Proc 1986 ACM Conf on LISP and Functional Prog, Aug 1986,
pp.279-297.  "Connection Machine LISP Reference Manual", Thinking Machines
Corp, Feb 1987.

CONNIVER - AI language for automatic theorem proving.  An outgrowth of
PLANNER, based on coroutines rather than backtracking.  Allowed multiple
database contexts with hypothetical assertions.  "The CONNIVER Reference

MIT AI Lab, 1973.

ConstraintLisp - Object-oriented constraint language based on CSP.  An
extension of Common Lisp and CLOS.  "ConstraintLisp: An Object-Oriented

Notices 27(11):17-26 (Nov 1992).

CONSTRAINTS - Constraints using value inference.  "CONSTRAINTS: A Language
for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif
Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980).

Consul - Constraint-based [future-based?] language with LISP-like syntax.
"Consul: A Parallel Constraint Language", D. Baldwin, IEEE Software


  1. String processing language, combined the pattern matching and
transformation operations of COMIT with the recursive data structures of
Lisp.  "Convert", A. Guzman et al, CACM 9(8):604-615 (Aug 1966).

  2. Early language to convert programs and data from one language to
another.  "CONVERT Manual", OLI Systems Inc (Oct 1976).

cooC - Concurrent Object-Oriented C.  Toshiba.  Concurrent object execution
with synchronous or asynchronous message passing.  Implemented for SunOS.
SIGPLAN Notices 28(2) [?]


  1. Concurrent Object-Oriented Language.  An extension of C++ with
task-level parallelism for shared-memory multiprocessors.  "COOL: A
Language for Parallel Programming", R. Chandra et al in Languages and
Compilers for Parallel Computing, D. Gelernter et al eds, MIT Press 1990,

  2. CLIPS Object-Oriented Language?


  1. Class Oriented Ring Associated Language.  L.G. Roberts, MIT 1964.
Graphical display and systems programming on the TX-2.  Used "rings"
(circular lists) from Sketchpad.  "Graphical Communication and Control
Languages", L.B. Roberts, Information System Sciences: Proc Second
Congress, 1965.  Sammet 1969, p.462.

  2. U Wisconsin Madison.  Language for deductive database.  Prolog-like
syntax with SQL-like extensions.  Many evaluation techniques are supported.
Implemented in C++.

  3. Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern UK.  Real-time system
programming language, a derivative of JOVIAL and ALGOL-60.  Strongly
associated with MASCOT, a desing technique for real time systems.  Adopted
as the British military standard from 1970 until the arrival of Ada.
Versions: C{*filter*}64, C{*filter*}66.  "Official Definition of C{*filter*}66", P.M.
Woodward et al, HMSO, London, 1970, ISBN 0-11-470221-7.

CORBIE - Early system on IBM 704.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

CORC - CORnell Compiler.  Simple language for student math problems.  "The
Cornell Computing Language", R.W. Conway et al, CACM 6(6):317-320 (Jun
1963)  Sammet 1969, p.294-296.

Coroutine Pascal - "Control Separation in Programming languages", Lemon et
al, ACM Ann Conf 1977.

CORREGATE - Based on IT.  Sammet 1969, p.139.

Correlatives and Conversions - Data description language used in the Pick
OS.  "Exploring the Pick Operating System", J.E. Sisk et al, Hayden 1986.

CORTL - Carl McConnell.  Intermediate language, a form of RTL?

Coursewriter III - ca. 1976.  Simple CAI language.  "Coursewriter III,
Version 3 Author's Guide", SH20-1009, IBM.

COWSEL - COntrolled Working SpacE Language.  Burstall and Popplestone, U
Edinburgh, 1964-66.  LISP-like semantics with FORTH-like stack, and reverse
Polish syntax.  Forerunner of POP.  EPU-R-12, U Edinburgh (Apr 1966).

CP - A concurrent Prolog.  "The Concurrent Logic Programming Language CP":
Definition and Operational Semantics", V. Saraswat, 14th POPL, ACM 1987,

OPS5, written in C and compiling to C.  Available for Unix, Mach, Encore
Multimaxen, and Sequent.  Version: 5.4.

CPL - Combined Programming Language.  U Cambridge and U London.  A very
complex language, syntactically based on ALGOL-60, with a pure functional
subset.  Provides the ..where.. form of local definitions.  Strongly typed
but has a "general" type enabling a weak form of polymorphism.  Functions
may be defined as either normal or applicative order.  Typed array and
polymorphic list structures.  List selection is through structure matching.
Partially implemented on the Titan (Atlas 2) computer at Cambridge.  Led to
the much simpler BCPL.  "The Main Features of CPL", D.W. Barron et al,
Computer J 6(2):134-143 (Jul 1963).


  1. Conversational Programming System.  Allen-Babcock Corp, 1965.
Interactive extended subset of PL/I.  "Conversational Programming System
under TSO (PBPO), Terminal User's Manual", SH20-1197, IBM.  Sammet 1969,

  2. Continuation Passing Style.  A semantically clean language with
continuations, has been used as an intermediate language for Scheme and the
SML/NJ compiler.  "Rabbit: A Compiler for Scheme", G.L. Steele, AI-TR-474,
MIT (May 1978).  "Compiling With Continuations", A. Appel, Cambridge U
Press 1992.

fragments to redistribute complexity and provide running commentary.
Implemented as a C preprocessor.

CRISP - Jeff Barnett, SDC, Santa Monica CA, early 70's.  A LISP-like
language and compiler for the IBM 370.  Differences from LISP included a
generalization of 2-part cons nodes to n-part.

CRL - Carnegie Representation Language.  (c)Carnegie Group Inc.  Frame
language derived from SRL.  Written in Common LISP.  Used in the product
Knowledge Craft.

CROSSTABS - Simple language for statistical analysis of tabular data.
"User's Manual for the CROSSTABS System", Cambridge Computer Assoc (Feb

Crystal - Concurrent Representation of Your Space-Time ALgorithms.  A
recursion equation parallel language.  "A Parallel Language and its
Compilation to Multiprocessor Machines or VLSI", M.C. Chen, 13th POPL, ACM
1986 pp.131-139.

CS-4 - "CS-4 Language Reference Manual and Operating System Interface", Ben
M. Brosgol et al, Report IR-130-2, Intermetrics, Cambridge MA, Oct 1975.

CS-Prolog - Distributed logic language.  "CS-Prolog on Multi-Transputer
Systems", I. Futo et al, Microprocessors & Microsystems, March 1989.

C-Scheme - Joe Bartlett at DEC/WRL?  Dialect of Scheme implemented in and
embeddable in C.

csh - C-Shell.  William Joy.  Command shell interpreter and script language
for Unix.


  1. Computer Structure Language.  A computer hardware description
language, written in BCPL.  "Computer Structure Language (CSL)", Proc 1975
Symp on Comp Hardware Description Languages and their Appl, ACM (Sep 1975).

  2. Control and Simulation Language.  Esso and IBM.  Language for
industrial simulations.  "Control and Simulation Language", J.N. Buxton et
al, Computer J 5(3):194-199 (Oct 1962).  Version: CSL 2 (1966 for IBM

CSM - "CSM - A Distributed Programming Language", S. Zhongxiu et al, IEEE
Trans Soft Eng SE-13(4):497-500 (Apr 1987).

CSMP - Continuous System Modeling Program.  Simulation of dynamics of
continuous systems.  Similar to CSSL.  "A Guide to Using CSMP - The
Continuous System Modeling Program", Frank H. Speckhart et al, P-H 1976.

CSP - Communicating Sequential Processes.  1978.  A notation for
concurrency based on synchronous message passing and selective
communications.  cobegin/coend.  "Communicating Sequential Processes", A.R.
Hoare, P-H 1985.

CSP/80 - Based on CSP.  "CSP/80: A Language for Communicating Processes",
M. Jazayeri et al, Proc Fall COMPCON80, IEEE pp.736-740 (Sept 1980).

CS/PCode - Used at Microsoft.

CSP/k - Concurrent SP/k.  A PL/I-like concurrent language.  "Structured
Concurrent Programming with Operating System Applications", R.C. Holt et
al, A-W 1978.

CSP-S - "Implementation of CSP-S for Description of Distributed
Algorithms", L. Patnaik et al, Comput Lang 9(3):193-202 (1984).

CSPS - "Toward Comprehensive Specification of Distributed Systems", G.
Roman et al, Proc 7th Intl Conf on Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1987, pp.282-289.

CS/QCode - Used at Microsoft.

CSS/II - Computer System Simulator II.  Like GPSS, for IBM 360.  "Computer
System Simulator II (CSS II) Program Description and Operations Manual",
SH20-0875, IBM.

CSSA - Object-oriented language.  "Key Concepts in the INCAS Multicomputer
Project", J. Nehmer et al, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-13(8):913-923 (Aug 1987).

CSSL - Continuous System Simulation Language.  Versions include ACSL,
HYTRAN, SL-I, S/360 and CSMP.  "The SCi Continuous System Simulation
Language (CSSL)", Simulation, 9(6) (Dec 1967).

CSTools - Concurrency through message-passing to named message queues.


  1. Checkout Test language.  "Checkout Test Language: An Interpretive
Language Designed for Aerospace Checkout Tasks", G.S. Metsker, Proc FJCC
33(2) (1968).

  2. Compiler Target Language.  Intermediate language used by the ALICE
parallel machine.  "The Design and Implementation of ALICE: A Parallel
Graph Reduction Machine", M.D. Cripps et al, Proc Workshop on Graph
Reduction, Springer 1987.

Cube - Three-dimensional visual language for higher-order logic.  "The Cube
Language", M. Najork et al, 1991 IEEE Workshop on Visual Langs, Oct 1991,

CUCH - CUrry-CHurch.  Lambda-calculus.  "A Type-Theoretical Alternative to
CUCH, ISWIM, OWHY", Dana Scott, Oxford U 1969.  "Introduction to the CUCH",
C. Bohm et al, in Automata Theory, E.R. Caianiello ed, A-P 1966, pp.35-65.

Culler-Fried System - System for interactive mathematics.  Sammet 1969,

CUPID - Graphic query language.  "CUPID: A Graphic Oriented Facility for
Support of Nonprogrammer Interactions with a Database",  N. McDonald, PhD
Thesis, CS Dept, UC Berkeley 1975.

CuPit - Parallel language for neural networks.  "CuPit - A Parallel
Language for Neural Algorithms: Language Reference and Tutorial", Lutz
Prechelt, TR, U Karlsruhe, 1993.

CUPL - Cornell University Programming Language.  Simple math problems,
based on CORC, with PL/I-like syntax.  "An Instruction Language for CUPL",
R.J. Walker, Cornell U, Jul 1967,

CWIC - Compiler for Writing and Implementing Compilers.  Val Schorre.  One
of the early metacompilers.  (cf. Meta-II).

CYBIL - Control Data's system programming language in the 80's.  Major
parts of CDC systems written in this.

CYCL - Frame language.  "Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems", D.B.
Lenat et al, A-W 1990.

CypherText - Interactive language for text formatting and typesetting.
"CypherText: An Extensible Composing and Typesetting Language", C.G. Moore
et al, Proc FJCC 37, AFIPS (Fall 1970).

D -

  1. "The Data Language."  MS-DOS 4GL.

  2. A Haskell-like language, with type classes.

DACAPO - Broad-range hardware specification language.  "Mixed Level
Modelling and Simulation of VLSI Systems", F.J. Rammig in Logic Design and
Simulation, E. Horbst ed, N-H 1986.

DACTL - Declarative Alvey Compiler Target Language.  U East Anglia.  An
intermediate language.  "DACTL - A Computational Model and Compiler Target
Language Based on Graph Reduction", J.R.W. Glauert et al, ICL Tech J 5(3)
(1987).  Version: Dactl0.  (See Lean, Parallel SML).

DAD - Declarative Ada Dialect.  Dialect of Ada intended to aid rapid
prototyping of Ada programs.  Adds many features including manipulation of
first-order functions, lazy evaluation, and streams.  Implemented as a pre-
processor to Ada.  "DAD Defined", P.A. Bailes et al, TR-229, CS Dept, U
Queensland, 1972.

Daisy - Functional.  "Daisy Programming Manual", S.D. Johnson, CS Dept TR,
Indiana U, 1988.

DAISY 201 - Early system on G-15.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

DAP-16 - assembly language for the Honeywell 2600 test station.

DAP Fortran - "Efficient High Speed Computing with the Distributed Array
Processor", P.M. Flanders et al, pp.113-127 (1977). [same as Fortran-

DAPLEX - "The Functional Data Model and the Data Language DAPLEX", D.W.
Shipman, ACM Trans Database Sys, 6(1):140-173 (Mar 1981).

DARE - Differential Analyzer REplacement.  A family of simulation languages
for continuous systems.  "Digital Continuous System Simulation", G.A. Korn
et al, P-H 1978.

Darms - Music language.  "The Darms Project: A Status Report", R.F.
Erickson, Computers and the Humanities 9(6):291-298 (June 1975).

Dartmouth BASIC - Term for the original BASIC by Kemeny & Kurtz.

DAS - Digital Analog Simulator.  Represents analog computer design.

DASL - Datapoint's Advanced System Language.  Gene Hughes.  A cross between
C and Pascal with custom features for Datapoint hardware (no stack), used
internally by Datapoint.

Data/BASIC - Also known as Pick BASIC.  A BASIC-like language with database
capabilities, the main programming language on the Pick OS.  "The
Data/BASIC Language - A Data Processing Language for Non-Professional
Programmers", P.C. Dressen, Proc SJCC 36, AFIPS (Spring 1970).

DATABUS - DATApoint BUSiness Language.  Like an interpreted assembly
language, used for custom applications on Datapoint machines.

DATACODE I - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16
(May 1959).

Dataparallel-C - Hatcher & Quinn, U New Hampshire.  C with parallel
extensions, based on an early version of C*.  For Intel iPSC-2 and nCube.

Data Parallel Haskell - Adds PODs and POD comprehensions to Haskell.
(POD=Parallel Object with arbitrary Dimension)  "Data Parallel Haskell:
Mixing Old and New Glue", J. Hill.

Data Structures Language - MAD dialect with extensions for lists and
graphics, on Philco 212.  "A Compiler Language for Data Structures", N.
Laurance, Proc ACM 23rd Natl Conf 36 (1968).

DATA-TEXT - Harvard.  Numerical computations in the Social Sciences.
"DATA-TEXT Primer", D.J. Armor, Free Press 1972.

DataVis - Dataflow language for scientific visualization.  "Data Flow
Visual Programming Languages", D. Hils, J Vis Langs and Comput, Dec 1991.

dBASE - Language used by the dBASE system.  First release was dBASE II, ca
1980.  (There never was a "dBASE I")  Later versions: dBASE III, dBASE
III+, and dBASE IV.

DBC - Data-parallel Bit-serial C.  SRC, Bowie MD.  Based on MPL.

dBFAST - dBASE dialect for MS-DOS, MS-Windows.

DBPL - Procedural language with relational database constructs.  A
successor to Pascal/R and Modula/R.  "DBPL Report", J.W. Schmidt et al,
DBPL-Memo 111-88, Fachbereich Informatik, Johann Wolfgang
Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt, Germany, 1988.

dBXL - dBASE-like interpreter/language for MS-DOS from WordTech, Orinda,

DCALGOL - Data Communications ALGOL.  A superset of Burroughs Extended
ALGOL used for writing Message Control Systems.

DCDL - Digital Control Design Language.  A language for simulating computer
systems.  "DCDS Digital Simulating System", H. Potash et al, Proc FJCC 35,
AFIPS (Fall 1969).

DCG - A variant of BNF.


  1. DIGITAL Command Language.  The interactive command and scripting
language for VAX/VMS.

  2. delphi Common LISP.  An implementation of Common LISP that has been
used as a basis for CLOS.


  1. "A Digital System Design Language" (DDL)", J.R. Duley, IEEE Trans on
Computers c-17(9):850-861 (Sep 1968).

  2. M. Urban, C. Kostanick et al, UCLA Computer Club.  An adventure
language, the forerunner of ADL.

  3. Data Definition Language.  Specification language for a database based
on the entity-relationship model.  Used in the Eli compiler-compiler to
manage type definitions.  "DDL Reference Manual", ECE Dept U Colorado,

DDM - Dataflow language.  "The Architecture and System Method of DDM-1: A
Recursively Structured Data Driven Machine", A. Davis, Proc 5th Ann Symp
Comp Arch, IEEE 1978.

DEACON - Direct English Access and CONtrol.  English-like query system.
Sammet 1969, p.668.

Delirium - An embedding coordinate language for parallel programming,
implemented on Sequent Symmetry, Cray, BBN Butterfly.  "Parallel
Programming with Coordination Structures", S. Lucco et al, 18th POPL,
pp.197-208 (1991).

Delta -

  1. J.C. Cleaveland, 1978.  Expression-based. [?]

  2. Tandem.  A string-processing language with single-character commands.

  3. Language for system specification of simulation execution.  "System
Description and the DELTA Language", E. Holback-Hansen et al, DELTA Proj
Rep 4, Norweg Comput Ctr, Feb 1977.

Delta-Prolog - Prolog extension with AND-parallelism, don't-know
nondeterminism and interprocess communication using synchronous event
goals.  Distributed backtracking.  "Delta-Prolog: A Distributed Logic
Programming Language", L.M. Pereira et al, Intl Conf 5th Gen Comp Sys, Nov

DEMON - Program generator for differential equation problems.  N.W.
Bennett, Australian AEC Research Establishment, AAEC/E142, Aug 1965.

Design System language - J. Gaffney, Evans & Sutherland 1976.  Interpretive
FORTH-like language for 3-D graphics databases.  Earliest forerunner of
both Interpress and postscript.  Mentioned in PostScript Language Reference
Manual, Adobe Systems, A-W 1985.

DETAB - DEcision TABle.  A. Chapman, 1964.  Decision table COBOL
preprocessor.  Sammet 1969, p.315.  Versions: DETAB 65, DETAB X.

DETOL - Directly Executable Test Oriented Language.  Simple language to
control a specific type of test equipment.  "Improved DETOL Programming
Manual for the Series 5500 Automatic Test System, Pub. 5500-31-0-1, AAI
Corp. (Sep 1973).

Deva - Functional.  "The Generic Development Language Deva: Presentation
and Case Studies", M. Weber et al, LNCS 738, Springer 1993.

DEX - W. van Oortmerssen.  A cross between Modula-2 and C.  Version 1.2
for Amiga

DFC - Dataflow language.  "Data Flow Lanuage DFC: Design and
Implementation", S. Toshio et al, Systems and Computers in Japan, 20(6):1-
10 (Jun 1989).

DG/L -

  1. Descriptive Geometry Language.  Early CAD/CAE language, used light
pen.  "Interactive Graphic Consoles - Environment and Software", R.L.
Beckermeyer, Proc FJCC 37 (1970).

  2. Data General ca 1973-1974.  Derivative of ALGOL 60, developed from
DG's Algol-5, used as the systems language under AOS and RDOS for the DG
Eclipse family of computers.  Replaced by PL/I in the early 80's.  Data
General manual 093-000229-01.

DIALECT - High-level language for LALR grammars.  Part of Software Refinery
from Reasoning Systems.

DIALOG - Illinois Inst Tech, 1966.  Interactive math using graphics tablet.
"DIALOG: A Conversational Programming System with a Graphical Orientation",
S.H. Cameron et al, CACM 10:349-357 (1967).  Sammet 1969, p.255-258.

DIAMAG - An interactive extension of ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.195.

Diamond - One of five pedagogical languages based on Markov algorithms,
used in "Nonpareil, a Machine Level Machine Independent Language for the
Study of Semantics", B. Higman, ULICS Intl Report No ICSI 170, U London
(1968).  (cf. Brilliant, Nonpareil, Pearl[3], Ruby[2]).

DIANA - Descriptive Intermediate Attributed Notation for Ada.  Goos & Wulf,
CMU, Jan 1981.  A de facto standard intermediate language for Ada programs.
An attributed tree representation, with an abstract interface defined in
IDL.  Resulted from a merger of AIDA and TCOL.Ada.  "DIANA - An
Intermediate Language for Ada", G.T. Goos et al, LNCS 161, Springer 1983.

DIBOL - Digital Interactive Business Oriented Language.  DEC, 1970.
FORTRAN syntax with BCD arithmetic.  Versions for PDP-8 and RT-11.  ANSI

Dictionary APL - nickname for Sharp APL.

Dijkstra's guarded command language - Edsger Dijkstra, ca. 1974.
Introduced the concept of guards and committed choice [=don't care]
nondeterminism.  Described and used in A Discipline of Programming, E.
Dijkstra, P-H 1976.

DIMATE - Depot Installed Maintenance Automatic Test Equipment.  For
automatic equipment tests, on RCA 301.  "A Simple User-Oriented Source
Language for Programming Automatic Test Equipment", B.H. Scheff, CACM 9(4)
(Apr 1966).  Sammet 1969, p.647.

DinnerBell - Object-oriented dataflow language with single assignment.
"Object-Oriented Load Distribution in DinnerBell", S. Kono

DINO - Data parallel language, a superset of C.  "The DINO Parallel
Programming Language", M. Rosing et al, J Parallel Dist Comp 13(9):30-42
(Sep 1991).  Implemented using ALADIN.  "DINO Parallel Programming
Language", M. Rosing et al, CU-CS-457-90, U Colorado, April 1990.*

Disiple - DSP language.  "A Compiler that Easily Retargets High Level
Language Programs for Different Signal Processing Architectures", J.E.
Peters & S.M. Dunn, Proc ICASSP 89, pp.1103-1106, (May 1989).

Dislang - "Dislang: A Distributed Programming Language/System", C. Li et
al, Proc 2nd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1981, pp.162-172.

Distributed Eiffel - "Distributed Eiffel: A Language for Programming Multi-
Granular Distributed Objects on the Clouds Operating System", L. Gunaseelan
et al, IEEE Conf Comp Langs, 1992.

Distributed Processes - (Also "DP").  First concurrent language based on
remote procedure calls.  "Distributed Processes: A Concurrent Programming
Concept", P. Brinch Hansen CACM 21(11):934-940 (Nov 1978).

Distributed Smalltalk - "The Design and Implementation of DIstributed
Smalltalk", J. Bennett, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):318-330 (Dec 1980).

DL/1 - Query language, linear keyword.

DLP - Logic programming similar to Prolog, combined with parallel object
orientation similar to POOL.  Supports distributed backtracking over the
results of a rendezvous between objects.  Multi-threaded objects have
autonomous activity and may simultaneously evaluate method calls.  "DLP: A
Language for Distributed Logic Programming", A. Eliens, Wiley 1992.

DMAD - Diagnostic Machine Aid-Digital.  Functional testing of digital
devices.  "DMAD M/MM Manual", BR-8392, Raytheon Co. (Oct 1973).

DMALGOL - ALGOL with extensions to interface to DMS II, the Burroughs


  1. Data Management Language.  Early ALGOL-like language with lists,
graphics, on Honeywell 635.  "DML: A Data Management Language", D.W. Bray
et al, GE, Syracuse NY.

  2. "DML: A Meta-language and System for the Generation of Practical and
Efficient Compilers from Denotational Specifications", M. Pettersson et al,
IEEE Conf Comp Langs, 1992.

Doc - Directed Oc.  "Programming Language Doc and Its Self-Description, or
'X=X Is Considered Harmful'", M. Hirata, Proc 3rd Conf Japan Soc Soft Sci
Tech, pp.69-72 (1986).

DOCUS - Display Oriented Computer Usage System.  Interactive system using
push buttons.  Sammet 1969, p.678

DoD-1 - Unofficial name of the language that became Ada.

DOUGLAS - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

DOL - Display Oriented Language.  Subsystem of DOCUS.  Sammet 1969, p.678.

DOW COMPILER - Early system on Datatron 200 series.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16
(May 1959).

DOWL - Distributed OWL.  B. Achauer, U Karlsruhe.  An extension of Trellis
supporting transparently distributed objects.  "The DOWL Distributed
Object-Oriented Language", B. Achauer, CACM 36(9) (Sep 1993).

d-Prolog - Prolog extended with defeasible reasoning.* for MS-DOS and Unix

DPL - DECmmp Parallel Language.  C-like parallel language for the DECmpp

DPL-82 - "DPL-82: A Language for Distributed Processing", L. Ericson, Proc
3rd Intl Conf Distrib Comp Sys, IEEE 1982, pp.526-531.

DPS - Real-time language with direct expression of timing requests.
"Language Constructs for Distributed Real-Time PRogramming", I. Lee et al
Proc IEEE Real-Time Sys Symp pp.57-66 (Dec 1985).

dpSather - Data-parallel Sather.  Fine-grained deterministic parallelism

draco - Chris Gray, 1987.  A blend of Pascal, C and ALGOL 68.  Implemented
for CP/M-80 and Amiga.

DRAGON - Implementation language used by BTI Computer Systems.

DRAGOON - Colin Atkinson, Imperial College 1989.  (current address:

object-oriented programming to embeddable systems.  Presently implemented
as an Ada preprocessor.  "Object-Oriented Reuse, Concurrency and
Distribution: An Ada-Based Approach", C. Atkinson, A-W 1991, ISBN 0-2015-6-

DROOL - Dave's Recycled Object-Oriented Language.  Language for writing
adventure games.  An updated implementation of AdvSys.  Multiple
inheritance, garbage collection.  "Dave's Recycled OO Language", David
Betz, Dr Dobbs J, Oct 1993, pp.74-78.

DRUCO I - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).


  1. Digital Simulation Language.  Extensions to FORTRAN to simulate analog
computer functions.  "DSL/90 - A Digital Simulation Program for Continuous
System Modelling", Proc SJCC 28, AFIPS (Spring 1966).  Version: DSL/90 for
the IBM 7090.  Sammet 1969, p.632.

  2. Denotational Semantics Language.  Specification language used by the
SIS compiler generator.  "SIS - Semantics Implementation System", P.D.
Mosses, TR DAIMI MD-30, Aarhus U, Denmark.


  1. Data Structure Manager.  J.E. Rumbaugh and M.E. Loomis, GE.  Object-
oriented language similar to C++, used in implementation of CAD/CAE
software.  DSM is written in itself and C, and produces C as output.  "DSM:
An Object-Relationship Modeling Language", A. Shah et al, SIGPLAN Notices
24(10):191-202 (OOPSLA '89) (Oct 1989).

  2. DIGITAL Standard MUMPS.  DEC.  (See MUMPS).

DSP/C - Numerical extension to C, for DSP applications.  "DSP/C: A Standard
High Level Language for DSP and Numeric Processing", K. Leary & W.
Waddington, Proc ICASSP 90, Apr 1990, pp.1065-1068.

DSP32 Assembly Language - A high-level assembly language for the DSP32
Programmable DSP Chip.

DSPL:  Digital Signal Processing Language.  A C-derived DSP language.  "The
Programming Language DSPL", A. Schwarte & H. Hanselmann, Proc PCIM 90,

DTALGOL - Decision Table Algol.  Victoria U, Wellington.  An ALGOL superset
that added decision tables.  On Burroughs Large System.

DUAL-607 - Early system on IBM 701.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

Dual FCP - [?]

DuoTalk - Smalltalk-like language with separate inheritance hierarchies for
types and classes.  "Separation of Hierarchies in DuoTalk", C. Lunau, J
Object- Oriented Programming 2(2):20-26, 1989.

Durra - Description language for coarse-grained concurrency on
heterogeneous processors.  "Durra: A Task-level Description Language", M.R.
Barbacci et al, CMU/SEI-86-TR-3, CMU 1986.

DYANA - DYnamics ANAlyzer.  Early specialized language for vibrational and
other dynamic systems.  Sammet 1969, p.628.

Dylan - DYnamic LANguage.  Advanced Technology Group East, Apple Computer.
A simple object-oriented LISP dialect, most closely resembles CLOS and
Scheme.  "Dylan, an Object-Oriented Dynamic Language", Apple 1992. - compiler implemented in Scheme

DYNAMO - DYNamic MOdels.  Phyllis Fox & A.L. Pugh, 1959.  Continuous
simulation including economic, industrial and social systems.  Versions:
"DYNAMO User's Manual", A.L. Pugh, MIT Press 1976.

DYSAC - Digital Simulated Analog Computer.  Sammet 1969, p.629.

DYSTAL - DYnamic STorage ALlocation.  Adds lists, strings, sorting,
statistics and matrix operations to FORTRAN.  Sammet 1969, p.388.  "DYSTAL:
Dynamic Storage Allocation Language in FORTRAN", J.M. Sakoda, in Symbol
Manipulation Languages and Techniques, D.G. Bobrow ed, N-H 1971, pp.302-

E -

  1. An extension of C++ with database types and persistent objects.  Used
in the Exodus database system.  "Persistence in the E Language: Issues and
Implementation", J.E. Richardson et al, Soft Prac & Exp 19(12):1115-1150
(Dec 1989).*

language with semantics similar to C.  Lists, low-level polymorphism,
exception handling, quoted expressions, pattern matching, object
inheritance.  Version for the Amiga.

Eagle - dBASE-like dialect bundled with Emerald Bay, sold by Migent from
1986-1988, later renamed Vulcan when Wayne Ratliff reacquired the product.

Ease - General purpose parallel programming language, combining the process
constructs of CSP and the distributed data structures of Linda.
"Programming with Ease: Semiotic Definition of the Language", S.E. Zenith,

EASE II - Early system on IBM 650.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959).

EASIAC - Early system on Midac computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

EASY FOX - Early system on JOHNNIAC computer.  Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May

EBASIC - Gordon Eubanks, now at Symantec.  Form of BASIC that led to

ECAP II - Electronic Circuit Analysis Program.  Simple language for
analyzing electrical networks.  "Introduction to Computer Analysis: ECAP
for Electronics Technicians and Engineers", H. Levin, P-H 1970.

Echidna - Constraint logic programming embedded in an object-oriented
language.  The syntax is an extension of Edinburgh Prolog.  "Hierarchical
Arc Consistency Applied to Numeric Processing in Constraint Logic
Programming", G. Sidebottom et al, TR-91-06, CSS-IS, Simon Fraser U, and
Comp Intell 8(4) (1992).

ECL -  Extensible CL.  Wegbreit, ca 1970.  "The ECL Programming System", B.
Wegbreit, Proc FJCC 39:253-261, AFIPS (Fall 1971).  "ECL Programmer's
Manual", B. Wegbreit, TR 23-74, Harvard U (Dec 1974).

ECMA - Subset of ALGOL.  Sammet 1969, p.180.

ECP - Extended Concurrent Prolog.  Concurrent Prolog with OR parallelism,
set abstraction and meta-inference features.  "AND-OR Queuing in Extended
Concurrent Prolog", J. Tanaka et al, Proc Logic Prog Conf '85, LNCS 193,
--Bill Kinnersley

226 Transfer complete.

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 Relevant Pages 

1. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 11 of 11)

2. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 8 of 11)

3. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 6 of 11)

4. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 5 of 11)

5. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 4 of 11)

6. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 2 of 11)

7. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 9 of 11)

8. The Language List - Version 2.3 (Part 1 of 11)

9. The Language List Version 2.2 (Part 11 of 11)

10. The Language List - Version 2.4 (Part 1 of 11)


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