Bird-Meertens Formalism and Parallelism 
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 Bird-Meertens Formalism and Parallelism

Getting parallelism out of a functional language isn't nearly as easy
as it appears. As far as I can tell there are really only two routes:
using strictness or using speculation. Both have problems.

Strictness depends on having lots of strict primitives or a compiler
that can detect strictness well. Proponents of higher order functional
programming seem to have gone for compiler detected strictness.
The Bird-Meertens formalism goes for a fixed set of second order
functions chosen to express massive strictness. Both choices are
sensible and arguments about the cost/benefits of higher orderness
have been going for at least 15 years without any real resolution.

Speculation probably deserves more attention than it has received,
but there are obvious problems with catching up and killing
rogue speculation.

Earlier messages have explained the construction of categorical
data types and some of the good things that go along with it. I'll
fill in some stuff to do with parallelism that hasn't already been
mentioned.

The CDT construction produces for each new type a generalized map
operation and a generalized reduction operation. These have the
obvious meaning on lists or bags. They do get more subtle when the
data type being considered is more complex (such as trees, see
Jeremy Gibbons thesis from Oxford, or arrays, see Banger's paper in
the proceedings of the ATABLE meeting last month). However, the
important thing is that these operations are both inherently parallel.
A homomorphism theorem for each constructed type assures us that
any homomorphism can be expressed as the composition of a generalized
map and a generalized reduction; so parallelism comes easily.

More importantly, homomorphisms reflect the locality behaviour of
the constructors of a type. If the type's constructors join
objects at a single point when building new objects, then
homomorphisms will require computation to occur between the
result of the homomorphism applied to the subobjects. Homomorphisms
replace each constructor by a new operation.

This all means that we can look at the constructors and deduce the
communication pattern that will be used to evaluate any homomorphism.
If the interconnection topology of our target includes this communication
pattern as a (sub)topology then homomorphisms will only use local
communication and we can treat the target as a free communication
machine. This dramatically simplifies working out the time complexity of
computations. But it also means that computations in the BMF style can
be relatively architecture independent since they will work the same
on any architecture containing an appropriate subtopology.

Of course, all the other good features of the Bird-Meertens approach:
transformation by equations that come for free, guarantees of
completeness, abstraction from the details of decomposition
and communication, apply in a parallel setting as well. Arguably
BMF is a great model for parallel computation because it has
just about the right level of abstraction.

You can get more details on all of this by ftping papers from
ftp.qucis.queensu.ca in directory pub/skill. There's also an
extensive Bibtex bibliography on parallel programming models
there as well.

                              -david skillicorn



Sun, 08 Jan 1995 01:27:47 GMT  
 
 [ 1 post ] 

 Relevant Pages 

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2. Bird-Meertens

3. Specification/Transformation Formalisms?

4. Course Announcement: HPSG Grammars and Typed Feature Formalisms

5. Smalltalk and Parallelism?

6. Eiffel and parallelism

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9. CFP: Workshop on Parallelism and Implementation Technology for (Constraint) Logic Programming Languages

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